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Citroen 2CV - Wikipedia
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The Citroen 2CV French: "deux chevaux" i.
The 2CV featured low cost, simplicity of overall maintenance, an easily serviced originally offering 9 hplow fuel consumption, and an extremely long-travel suspension offering a soft fiat 500 blackjack chile and.
Often called "an umbrella on wheels", the bodywork featured a full-width, canvas, roll-backwhich belterra casino blackjack oversized loads and until 1955 reached almost to the car's rear bumper.
Manufactured in France between 1948 and 1988 and in Portugal from 1988 to 1990more than 3.
Citroen ultimately offered several mechanically identical variants including the over 1.
In total, Citroen manufactured almost 9 million 2CVs and variants.
A 1953 technical review in described "the extraordinary ingenuity of this design, which is undoubtedly the most original since the ".
In 2011, called it a "car like no other".
The motoring writer described the 2CV as "the most intelligent application of minimalism ever to succeed as a car", and a car of "remorseless rationality".
Development In 1934, family-ownedas the largest creditor, took over the bankrupt Citroen company.
The new management commissioned a market survey, conducted by Jacques Duclos.
One design parameter required that customers be able to drive eggs across a freshly ploughed field without breakage.
In 1936,vice-president of Citroen and chief of engineering and design, sent the brief to his design team at the engineering department.
The TPV Toute Petite Voiture � "Very Small Car" was to be developed in secrecy at Michelin facilities at Clermont-Ferrand and at Citroen in Paris, by the design team who had created the.
Boulanger closely monitored all decisions relating to the TPV, proposing strictly reduced target weights.
He created a department to weigh and redesign each component, to lighten the TPV without compromising function.
Three unrestored TPVs Boulanger placed engineer in charge of the TPV project.
Lefebvre had designed and raced Grand Prix cars; his speciality was chassis design and he was particularly interested in maintaining contact between tyres and the road surface.
The first prototypes were bare chassis with rudimentary controls, seating and roof; test drivers wore leather flying suits, of the type used in contemporary open biplanes.
By the end of 1937 20 TPV experimental prototypes had been built and tested.
The prototypes had only one headlight, all that was required by French law at the time.
On 29 December 1937, was killed in a car crash; Boulanger became president of Citroen.
By 1939 the TPV was deemed ready, after 47 technically different and incrementally improved experimental had been built and tested.
These prototypes used aluminium and parts and had water-cooled flat twin engines with front-wheel drive.
The seats were hung from the roof by wires.
see more suspension system, designed by Alphonse Forceau, used front leading arms and rear trailing arms, connected to eight torsion bars beneath the rear seat: a bar for the front axle, one for the rear axle, an intermediate bar for each side, and an overload bar for each side.
The front axle was connected to its torsion bars by cable.
The overload bar came into play when the car had three people on board, two in the front and one in the rear, to support the extra load of a fourth passenger and fifty kilograms of luggage.
Brochures were printed and preparations made to present the car, renamed the Citroen 2CV, at the forthcoming in October 1939.
One innovation included from the beginning of production was 's newfirst commercialised with the introduction of the 2CV.
This radial design is an integral part of the design of the 2CV chassis.
World War II Restored Citroen TPV with fiat 500 blackjack chile single headlight On 3 September 1939, France declared war on Germany following that country's invasion of Poland.
An atmosphere of impending disaster led to the cancellation of the 1939 motor show less than a month before it was scheduled to open.
The launch of the 2CV was abandoned.
During the Boulanger personally refused to collaborate with German authorities to the point where the listed him as an "enemy of the Reich", under constant threat of arrest and deportation to Germany.
Michelin Citroen's main shareholder and Citroen managers decided to hide the TPV project from the Nazis, fearing some military application as in the case of the futuremanufactured during the war as the military.
Several TPVs were buried at secret locations; one was disguised as a pickup, the others were destroyed, and Boulanger spent the next six years thinking about further improvements.
Until 1994, when three TPVs were discovered in a barn, it was believed that only two prototypes had survived.
As of 2003 there were five known TPVs.
Boulanger decided to redesign the car to use mostly steel with flat panels, instead of aluminium.
The Nazis had attempted to loot Citroen's press tools; this was frustrated after Boulanger got the to relabel the rail cars containing them in the Paris marshalling yard.
They ended up all over Europe, and Citroen was by no means sure they would all be returned after the war.
In early 1944 Boulanger made the decision to abandon the water-cooled two-cylinder engine developed for the car and installed in the 1939 versions.
Becchia was also supposed to design a three-speed gearbox, but managed to design a four-speed for the same space at little extra cost.
At this time small French cars like the and usually featured three-speed transmissions, as did Citroen's own mid-size � but the 1936 Italian "people's car" did have a four-speed gearbox.
Becchia persuaded Boulanger that the fourth gear was an overdrive.
The increased number of gear ratios also helped to pull the extra weight of changing from light alloys to steel for the body and chassis.
Other changes included seats fiat 500 blackjack chile tubular steel frames with rubber band springing and a restyling of the body by the Italian.
The development and production of what was to become the 2CV was also delayed by the incoming 1944 Socialist French government, after the liberation by the Allies from the Germans.
The five-year "Plan Pons" to rationalise car production and husband scarce resources, named after economist and former French motor industry executiveonly allowed Citroen the upper middle range of the car market, with the Traction Avant.
The French government allocated the economy car market, US aid, US production equipment and supplies of steel, to newly nationalised Renault to produce its.
The "Plan Pons" came to an end in 1949.
Postwar French roads were very different from pre-war ones.
Horse-drawn vehicles had re-appeared visit web page large numbers.
Only 100,000 of the two million pre-war cars were still on the road.
The time was known as "Les annees grises" or "the grey years" in France.
Production Early AZU fourgonnette rear Citroen unveiled the car at the Paris Salon on 7 October 1948.
The car on display was nearly identical to the 2CV type A that would be sold the next year, but it lacked an electric starter, the addition of which was decided the day before the opening of the Salon, replacing the starter.
The roof could be rolled completely open.
The Type A had oneand was only available in grey.
The only other instrument was an.
The car was heavily criticised by the motoring press and became the butt of French comedians for a short while.
One American motoring journalist quipped, "Does it come with a can opener?
Despite critics, Citroen was flooded with customer orders at the show.
The car had a great impact on the lives of the low-income segment of the population in France.
The 2CV was a commercial success: within months of it going on sale, there was a three-year waiting list, which soon increased to five years.
At the time a second-hand 2CV was more expensive than a new one because the buyer did not have to wait.
Production was increased from 876 units in 1949 to 6,196 units in 1950.
Grudging respect began to emanate from the international press: towards the end of 1951 the opinion appeared in Germany's recently launched magazine that, despite its "ugliness and primitiveness" "Ha?lichkeit und Primitivitat"the 2CV was a "highly interesting" "hochinteressantes" car.
In 1950, was killed in a car crash fiat 500 blackjack chile the main road from Clermont-Ferrand the home of Michelin to Paris.
In 1951 the 2CV received an ignition lock and a lockable driver's door.
Production reached 100 cars a week.
By the end of 1951 production totalled 16,288.
Citroen introduced the 2CV Fourgonnette panel van.
The "Weekend" version of the van had collapsible, removable rear seating and rear side windows, enabling a tradesman to use it as a family vehicle on the weekend as well as for business in the week.
Boulanger's policy, which continued after his death, was: "Priority is given to those who have to travel by car because of their work, and for whom ordinary cars are too expensive to buy.
In 1954 the speedometer got a light for night driving.
In 1955 the 2CV side repeaters were added above and behind the rear doors.
It was now also available with 425 cc AZ12.
In 1957 a heating and ventilation system was installed.
The colour of the steering wheel changed from black to grey.
The mirrors and the rear window were enlarged.
The bonnet was decorated with a longitudinal strip of aluminium AZL.
In September 1957, the model AZLP P for porte de malle, "boot lid"appeared with a lid panel; previously the soft top had to be opened at the bottom to get to the boot.
In 1958 a Belgian Citroen plant produced a higher quality version of the car AZL3.
It had a third side window, not available in the normal version, and improved details.
In the front fenders rectangular turn signals were integrated on some export models.
The corrugated metal bonnet was replaced by a five-rib glossy cover.
Simultaneously, the grille was slightly modified flatter shape with a curved top edge.
This had an additional engine-transmission unit in the rear, mounted the other way around and driving the rear wheels.
For the second engine there was a separate push-button starter and choke.
With a gearstick between the front seats, both transmissions were operated simultaneously.
For the two engines, there were separate petrol tanks under the front seats.
The filler neck sat in more info front doors.
Both engines and hence axles could be operated independently.
The spare wheel was mounted on the bonnet.
The car had ample off-road capability, but at twice the price of the standard 2CV.
Many were used by the Swiss Post as a delivery vehicle.
Today they are highly collectible.
In 1960 the corrugated style "ripple bonnet" of convex swages was replaced except for the Saharawith one using six larger concave swages and looked similar until the end of production.
In 1961 Citroen launched a new model based on the 2CV chassis, with a four-door sedan body, and a reverse rake rear window: the.
In 1962 the engine power was increased to 14 hp 10.
A sunroof was installed.
In 1963 the engine power was increased to 16 hp 11.
An electric wiper motor replaced the drive on the speedometer.
The ammeter was replaced by a charging indicator light.
The speedometer was moved from the window frame into the dash.
Ad copy came from Jacques Wolgensinger Director of PR at Citroen.
Wolgensinger was responsible for the youth orientated "Raids", 2CV Cross, rallies, the use of "Tin-Tin", and the slogan "More than just a car � a way of life".
A range of colours was introduced, starting with Glacier Blue in 1959, then yellow in 1960.
In the 1960s 2CV production caught up with demand.
In February 1965 Citroen Belgium introduced the 3CV AZAM6 which featured the 602 cc, 23 PS 16.
This version was manufactured until October 1967 and was also exported to certain continental markets although it was never offered in France.
In 1967, Citroen launched a new model based on the 2CV chassis, with an updated but still utilitarian body, with a a hatchback kit was available from Citroen dealers for the 2CV, and aftermarket kits are available that boosted practicality: the.
The exterior is more modern and distinguished by the recessed lights in the fenders and bodywork.
Between 1967 and 1983 fiat 500 blackjack chile 1.
This was in response to competition by the.
The Dyane was originally planned as an upmarket version of the 2CV and was supposed to supersede it, but ultimately the 2CV outlived the Dyane by seven years.
Citroen also developed the.
From 1965, the car was offered in some countries, at extra cost, with the engine size increased to 602 cc 36.
This was replaced by an updated 435 cc 26.
From 1970, only two series were produced: the 2CV 4 AZKB with 435 cc and the 2CV 6 Azka with 602 cc displacement.
All 2CVs from this date can run on unleaded fuel.
In 1971 the front bench seat was replaced with two individual seats.
In 1972 2CVs were fitted with standard three-point seat belts.
In 1973 new seat covers, a padded single-spoke steering wheel and ashtrays were introduced.
Sales of the 2CV were reinvigorated by the.
The 2CV after this time became as much a youth lifestyle statement as a basic functional form of transport.
This renewed popularity was encouraged by the Citroen "Raid" intercontinental endurance rallies of the 1970s where customers could participate by buying a new 2CV, fitted with a "P.
The Paris to rally was the most famous.
The round headlights were replaced by square ones, adjustable in height.
A new plastic grille was fitted.
Between 1975 and 1990 under the name of AZKB "2CV Special" a drastically reduced trim basic version was sold, at first only in yellow and with an untreated black roof.
Slimmer bumpers with stick-on tape rather than plastic strips and no overriders were fitted.
It also had the earlier round headlights, last fitted in 1974.
In order to keep the price as low as possible, Citroen removed the third side window, the ashtray, and virtually all trim from the car, while that which remained was greatly simplified, such as simple vinyl-clad door cards and exposed door catches rather than the plastic moulded trims found on the 2CV Club.
Other 2CVs shared their instruments with the Dyane and H-Van but the Special had a much smaller square speedometer also incorporating the fuel gauge, originally fitted to the 2CV in the mid-1960s and then discontinued.
The model also had a revised and cheaper-to-make plastic version of the 1960s two-spoke steering wheel instead of the one-spoke item from the Dyane, as found on the Club.
From the 1978 the Special regained third side windows, and was available in red and white; beginning in mid-1979 the 602 cc engine was installed.
In June 1981 the Special E blackjack tournament casino arizona this model had a standard and particularly low urban fuel consumption.
Citroen itself now had the available.
Peak annual production for 2CVs was reached in 1974 163,143 cars but by 1980 this had dropped to 89,994 and by 1983 would stand at just 59,673.
None the less the car remained profitable for PSA to click at this page on account of its tooling and set-up costs being amortised many years before and it could share major parts with more popular or profitable models such as the Visa and.
As part of this rationalisation in 1981 the Special was fitted as standard with the 602 cc engine, although the 435 cc version remained available to special order in some European countries until stocks were used up.
Also in 1981 a yellow 2CV6 was driven by in the 1981 film.
The car in the film was fitted with the engine from a which more than doubled the power.
In one scene the ultra light 2CV tips over and is quickly righted by hand.
Citroen launched a special edition 2CV "007" to coincide with the film; it was fitted with the standard engine and painted yellow with "007" on the front doors and fake bullet hole stickers.
In 1982 all 2CV models got inboard front disc brakes, which also used instead of conventional brake fluid - the same as was found in the larger Citroen models with.
In late 1986 Citroen introduced the Visa's replacement, the.
This was widely regarded as a superior car to the Visa and took many of the remaining 2CV sales in France following its introduction.
From 1986 to 1987 2CV production fell by 20 per cent to just 43,255 cars.
Of that total over 12,500 went to and 7212 went to the UK.
France was now the third-largest market for 2CVs, taking 7045 cars that year.
It was estimated that Citroen was now selling the 2CV at a loss in the French market, but that it was still profitable in other European countries.
The peak of 2CV sales in the United Kingdom would be reached in 1986, thanks to the introduction of the popular Dolly special edition see below - 7520 new 2CVs were registered in Britain that year.
This year saw the discontinuation of the Club, which was by then the only 2CV model to retain the rectangular headlamps.
This left the Special as the only regular 2CV model, alongside the more fashion-orientated Dolly, Charleston and the other special editions.
In 1988, production ended in France after 40 years.
The factory at had been the global centre for 2CV production since 1948 but was outdated, inefficient and widely criticised for its poor working conditions.
The last French-built 2CV was made on February 25.
In recognition of the event, click last 2CV built at Levallois was a basic Special in a non-standard grey colour - the same shade as worn by the very first 2CVs.
Production of the 2CV would continue at the smaller-capacity but more modern plant in Portugal.
In 1989 the first were introduced voluntarily by a number of European nations, ahead of the legal deadline of July 1992.
This meant that the 2CV was withdrawn from sale in Austria, Denmark, Italy, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands - the latter one of the car's largest remaining markets.
That year the three leading markets for the 2CV were West Germany 7866France 5231 and the UK 3200.
The last 2CV was built at Mangualde on 27 July 1990 - it was a specially-prepared Charleston model.
Only 42,365 2CVs were built in Portugal in the two years following the end of French production.
Portuguese-built cars, especially those from when production was winding down, have a reputation in the UK for being much less well made and more prone to corrosion than those made in France.
According to Citroen, the Portuguese plant was more up-to-date than the one in near Paris, and Portuguese 2CV manufacturing was to higher quality standards.
As of October 2016, 3,025 remained in service in the UK.
In 1981 the 007 arrived.
In 1983 the 2CV Beachcomber arrived in the United Kingdom; it was known as "France 3" in France or "Transat" in other continental European markets � Citroen sponsored the French America's Cup yacht entry of that year.
In 1986 there was the Cocorico.
This means "cock-a-doodle-doo" and tied in with France's entry in the.
In 1987 came the Bamboo, followed by the 1988 Perrier in association with the mineral water company.
Other changes were a new rear-view mirror and inboard disc brakes at the front wheels.
Citroen 2CV6 Club � 2013 The Dolly special edition was introduced in March 1985, using bright two-tone colour schemes with a similar Art Deco style as the more subdued Charleston.
In its name, style and marketing the Dolly was particularly aimed at female car buyers, as in the mid-1980s research showed that 40% of 2CV buyers were women.
With demand for these models still high Citroen made the Dolly a permanent fixture in the 2CV range.
While the first two series had, like the other special editions, been based on the more luxurious Club model the production Dolly was based on the basic 2CV Special to provide a model priced between the Special and the Club.
In many markets, including Germany and the UK, the Dolly was best-selling 2CV model, outselling all the other variants combined in some years.
It was introduced mainly because of stricter emissions standards.
In 1987 it was replaced by the "Sausss-duck" special edition.
During the post-war years Citroen was very focused on the home market, which had some unusual quirks, like.
The management of was supportive of Citroen up to a point, and with a suspension designed to use Michelin's new the Citroen click here clearly demonstrated their superiority over their competitors' tyres.
But they were not prepared to initiate the investment needed for the 2CV or the for that matter to truly compete on the global stage.
Citroen was always under-capitalised until the 1970s Peugeot takeover.
Production of the 2CV in was from 1952 to 1980.
Production at Citroen's plant inEngland was from 1953 to 1960.
Until then British construction and use regulations made cars with inboard front brakes such as the 2CV illegal.
Producing the car in Britain allowed Citroen to circumvent trade barriers and to sell cars in the and.
It achieved some success in these markets, to the extent that all Slough-built 2CVs were fitted with improved air cleaners and other modifications to suit the rough conditions found in Australia and Africa, where the 2CV's durability and good ride quality over rough roads attracted buyers.
The 2CV sold poorly in Great Britain in part due to its excessive cost, because of import duties on components.
In 1959, the British ordered 65 2CV pick-ups from the Slough plant, following sea tests aboard in the West Indies and the Indian Ocean during 1957�58, with the Westland Whirlwind helicopters of 845 squadron RNAS.
The pick-ups also served aboard HMS.
They were to serve as motor transport with the 42nd Commando regiment of the Royal Marines, which required robust and reliable vehicles to cope with jungle tracks, that were light enough to be taken ashore by helicopter from the aircraft carriers.
In 1959 Slough introduced a unique model, the glass-fibre coupe version called the.
Styling of this car was by Peter Kirwan-Taylor better known for his work with of on the 1950sbut the bodywork proved too heavy for the 425 cc 25.
In 1975, the 2CV was re-introduced to the British market in the wake of the oil crisis, which resulted in an increasing demand for smaller cars, to which most manufacturers had responded by launching small "supermini" cars, including theand.
The second wave of 2CVs for the British market were produced in France but avoided the crippling import duties of the 1950s, because the UK was by then a member of the.
In the 1980s, the best foreign markets for the 2CV were the UK and West Germany.
The original model that produced 9 hp 6.
Also in 1959, the firm began producing the 2CV under licence at the plant, in what is today.
This venture lasted from 1959 to 1985, and grew to encompass many Citroen models.
The Yugoslav automobile market was closed, so this with a local firm allowed Citroen to access the market.
In the in 1963, a locally assembled 2CV was sold in some west African countries as the Citroen "".
This idea of building a "simplified" 2CV in developing countries was subsequently tried several times, as detailed under.
In 1972, the firm began production of the 2CV-based Pony.
In 1966, Citroen entered with the 2CV.
The 2CV was soon supplanted by the Jiane, a local version of the.
The cars were originally manufactured in Iran in a joint venture between Citroen and up until thewhen Iran National was nationalised, which continued producing the Jiane without the involvement of Citroen.
The 2CV was built in both and for.
The 1953 Citroneta model of the 2CV made in Chile and Argentina used a type AZ chassis with 425 cc engine developing 12 bhp 8.
Both chassis and engine were made in France while the "three box" bodywork in both 2- and 4-door versions was designed and produced in Chile.
It was the first economy car on the market in Chile.
The 1970s Chilean version mounted a 602 cc engine with an output of 33 hp 25 kWand was designated as the AX-330.
It was built between 1970 and 1978, during which it saw changes like different bumpers, a hard roof, front disc brakes, and square headlights.
A derivation called the "3CV" was built in Argentina with various modifications such as a hatchback.
Citroen had produced more than 200,000 cars in Argentina by 1977; production ended in 1979.
A 2CV with a heavily modified front end called the 3CV IES America was produced well into the 1980s, by an Argentinian company that bought the rights and factory from Citroen.
One of the models, named the Yagan after an tribe, was made in Chile between 1972 and 1973.
During the200 Yagans used by the Army to patrol the streets and the Peruvian border, with 106 mm 4.
All 2CVs have flap-up windows: roll up windows were considered too heavy and expensive in 1948, and the design thin doors did not allow any update.
While colours and detail specifications were modified in the ensuing 42 years, the biggest mechanical change was the addition of front by then already fitted for several years in the mechanically similar 6in October 1981 for the 1982 model year.
The reliability of the car was enhanced by the minimalist simplification of the designers, being air-cooled with an oil coolerit had no coolant, radiator, water pump or.
It had no share ways to bet in blackjack for either, just a contact breaker system.
Except for the brakes, there were no hydraulic parts on original models; damping was by tuned mass dampers and friction dampers.
The 1948 car featuredwhich had just been commercialised; ; mounted inside the front suspension cross-tube, away from a frontal impact; rear the suspension design allowed wheel changes without removing the skirts ; bolt-on detachable front and rear wings; detachable doors, bonnet and boot lid after 1960by "slide out" P-profile sheet metal hinges; flap-up windows, as roll up windows were considered too heavy and expensive.
Ventilation in addition to the sunroof and front flap windows was provided by an opening fiat 500 blackjack chile under the windscreen.
The car had load adjustable headlights and a heater heaters were standardised on British economy cars in the 1960s.
Body The body was constructed of a dual H-frame platform and -style tube framework, and a very thin steel shell that was bolted to the chassis.
The 2CV used the fixed-profile convertible, where the doors and upper side elements of its bodywork remain fixed although, the doors could be removed easily too by lifting them up and way from the car.
The bonnet too could be removed by sliding sideways to allow extra ventilation on very hot days.
The fabric soft top can be rolled back and a picnic basket was available for purchase and fixed on the boot door.
This reduces weight and lowers the centre of gravity, and allows the carrying of long or irregularly shaped items, but the key reason was that fabric was cheaper than steel which was in short supply and expensive after the war.
The fixed-profile concept was quite popular in this period.
Thefore-aft linked suspension system with inboard front brakes had a much smaller than existing or designs.
The design was watch price blackjack by Marcel Chinon.
The system comprises two suspension cylinders mounted horizontally on each side of the platform chassis.
Inside the cylinders are two springs, one for each wheel, mounted at each end of the cylinder.
The springs are connected to the front leading swinging arm and rear trailing swinging arm, that act like by pull rods tie rods.
These are connected to spring click here cups in the middle of the cylinder, each spring being article source independently, against the ends of the cylinder.
Each cylinder is mounted using an additional set of springs, originally made from steel, called "volute" springs, on later models made from rubber.
These allow the front and rear suspension to interconnect.
When the front wheel is deflected up over a bump, the front pull rod compresses the front spring inside the cylinder, against the front of the cylinder.
This also compresses the front "volute" spring pulling the whole cylinder forwards.
That action pulls the rear wheel down on the same side via the rear spring assembly and pull rod.
When the rear wheel meets that bump source moment later, it does the same in reverse, keeping the car level front to rear.
When both springs are compressed on one side when travelling around a bend, or front and rear wheels hit bumps simultaneously, the equal and opposite forces applied to the front and rear spring assemblies reduce the interconnection.
A larger than conventional steeringensures that the front wheels are closer to vertical than the rears, when cornering hard with a lot of body roll.
The soft springing, long suspension travel and the use of leading and trailing arms means that as the body rolls during cornering the wheelbase on the think, fort mcdowell casino blackjack valuable of the corner increases while the wheelbase on the inside of the corner decreases.
As the cornering forces put more of the car's weight on the outside pair of wheels the wheelbase extends in proportion, keeping the car's weight balance and centre of grip constant, promoting excellent road holding.
The other key factor in the quality of its road holding is the very low and forward centre of gravity, provided by the position of the engine and transmission.
The suspension also automatically accommodates differing payloads in the car- with four people and cargo on board the increases by around 4 cm 2 in as the suspension deflects, and the of the front wheels increases by as much as 8 degrees thus ensuring that ride quality, handling and road holding are almost unaffected by the additional weight.
On early cars friction dampers like a dry version of a multi-plate clutch design were fitted at the mountings of the front and rear swinging arms to the cross-tubes.
Because the rear brakes were outboard, they had extra tuned mass dampers to damp wheel bounce from the extra unsprung mass.
The uprated hydraulic damping obviated the need for the rear inertia dampers.
It was designed to be a comfortable ride by matching the frequencies encountered in human bipedal motion.
This suspension design ensured the road wheels followed ground contours underneath them closely, while insulating the vehicle from shocks, enabling the 2CV to be driven over a ploughed field without breaking any eggs, as its design brief required.
More importantly it fiat 500 blackjack chile comfortably and safely drive at reasonable speed, along the ill-maintained and war-damaged post-war French Routes Nationales.
It was commonly driven "Pied au Plancher" � "foot to the floor" by their peasant owners.
Front-wheel drive and gearbox Citroen had developed expertise with due to the pioneeringwhich was the first mass-produced steel monocoque front-wheel-drive car in the world.
The 2CV was originally equipped with a sliding splined joint, and twin Hookes type universal joints on its driveshafts; later models used constant velocity joints and a sliding splined joint.
The gear stick came horizontally out of the dashboard with the handle curved upwards.
It had a strange shift pattern: the first was back on the left, the second and third were inline, and the fourth or the S could be engaged only by turning the lever to the right from the third.
Reverse was opposite first.
The idea was to put the most used gears opposite each other � for parking, first and reverse; for normal driving, second and third.
This layout was adopted from the H-van's three-speed gearbox.
Later models had an option for a semi-automatic clutch that allow the user to engage the first gear and wait at the traffic lights with the foot on https://artwinajans.com/blackjack/python-blackjack-oop.html brakes only.
The wipers' speed was therefore dependent on car speed.
When the car was waiting at a crossroad, the wipers were not powered; thus, a handle under the speedometer allowed them to be operated by hand.
The wipers and speedometer could not be used at the same time.
From 1962, the wipers were powered by a single-speed electric motor.
The car came with only a speedometer and an ammeter.
In October 1981, front were fitted.
Disc brake cars use � which is not compatible with standard glycol.
It was an air-cooled,four-stroke, 375 cc engine with pushrod operated and a hemispherical combustion chamber.
The earliest model developed 9 PS 6.
A 425 cc engine was introduced in 1955, followed in 1968 by a 602 cc one giving 28 bhp 21 kW at 7000 rpm.
With the 602 cc engine, the tax classification of the car changed so that it became a 3CV, but the name remained unchanged.
A 435 cc engine was introduced at the same time to replace the 425 cc; the 435 cc engine car was named 2CV 4 while the 602 cc took the name 2CV 6 a variant in Argentina took the name 3CV.
The 602 cc engine evolved to the M28 33 bhp 25 kW in 1970; this was the most powerful engine fitted to the 2CV.
A new 602 cc giving 29 bhp 22 kW at a slower 5,750 rpm was introduced in 1979.
This engine was less powerful, and more efficient, allowing lower fuel consumption and better top speed, at the price of decreased acceleration.
All 2CVs with the M28 engine can run on unleaded petrol.
The 2CV used the for simplicity and reliability and had only speed-controlled ignition timing, no vacuum advance taking account of engine load.
Unlike other air-cooled cars such as the and the the 2CV's engine had no valve in its oil system.
The engine needed more time for oil to reach normal operating temperature in cold weather.
All the oil passed through an oil cooler behind the fan and received the full cooling effect regardless of the ambient temperature.
This removes the risk of overheating from a jammed thermostat that can afflict water- and air-cooled engines and the engine can withstand many hours of running under heavy load at high engine speeds even in hot weather.
To prevent the engine running cool in cold weather and to improve the output of the cabin heater all 2CVs were supplied with a grille blind canvas on early cars and a clip-on plastic item called a "muff" in the owner's handbook, on later ones which blocked around half the aperture to reduce the flow of air to the engine.
The and were built integrally with the one-pieceremoving the need for.
The use ofseen as another potential weak point for failure and leaks, was also kept to a minimum.
The are mated to the cylinder barrels by lapped joints with extremely fine tolerances, as are the two halves of the and other surface-to-surface joints.
On any 2-cylinder boxer engine such as the 2CV's, the volume of the crankcase reduces by the cubic capacity of the engine when the pistons move together.
This, combined with the inevitable small amount of "leakage" of combustion gases past the pistons leads to a positive pressure in the crankcase which must be removed in the interests of engine efficiency and to prevent oil and gas leaks.
The 2CV's engine has a combined engine "breather" and oil filler assembly which contains a series of rubber.
These allow positive pressure to escape the crankcase to the engine air intake to be recirculated but close when the pressure in the crankcase drops as the pistons move apart.
Because gases are expelled but not admitted this creates a slight vacuum in the crankcase so that any weak joint or failed seal causes air to be sucked in rather than allowing oil to leak out.
These design features made the 2CV engine highly reliable; test engines were run at full speed for 1000 hours at a time, equivalent to driving 80,000 km 50,000 mi at full throttle.
They also meant that the engine was "sealed for life" � for example, replacing the big-end bearings required specialised equipment to dismantle and reassemble the built-up crankshaft, and as this was often not available the entire crankshaft had to be replaced.
The engine is very under-stressed and long-lived, so this is not a major issue.
This feature, once universal on cars and still common in 1948 when the 2CV was introduced, was kept until the end of production in 1990.
The last evolution of the see more engine was the flat-twin, a 652 cc featuring electronic ignition.
Citroen never sold this engine in the 2CV, but some enthusiasts have converted their 2CVs to 652 engines, or even transplanted or GSA flat-four engines and gearboxes.
In the mid-1980s Steve Cropley ran and reported on a turbocharged 602cc 2CV that was developed by engineer Richard Wilsher.
Although the front of the chassis was designed to fold up, to form a according to a 1984 Citroen brochure, in common with other small cars of its era its was very poor by modern standards.
Its advanced underlying engineering was ignored or misunderstood by the public, being clothed in an anachronistic body.
It was the butt of many a joke, famously by in the UK.
Citroen had attempted to replace the ultra-utilitarian 2CV several times with the, and the.
Its comically antiquated appearance became an advantage to the car, and it became a spongebob cousin blackjack sold because it was different from anything else on sale.
Because of its down-to-earth style, it became popular with people who wanted to distance themselves from mainstream � "" � and also with environmentalists.
Officially, the last 2CV, a Charleston, which was reserved for Mangualde's plant manager, rolled off the Portuguese production line on 27 July 1990, although five additional 2CV Specials were produced afterwards.
In all a total of 3,867,932 2CVs were produced.
Including the commercial versions of the 2CV, Dyane, Mehari, FAF, and Ami variants, the 2CV's underpinnings spawned 8,830,679 vehicles.
The 2CV was outlived by contemporaries such as the out of production in 2000200319922013 and originally a 1950s2014.
The or Composite Concept Vehicle developed in the mid-1990s is a concept car designed fiat 500 blackjack chile illustrate new manufacturing methods suitable for developing countries.
The car is a tall, roomy four-door sedan of small dimensions.
The designers at Chrysler said they were inspired to create a modernised 2CV.
The company Sorevie of was building 2CVs mackie onyx blackjack windows 8 10 driver 2002.
The cars were built from scratch using mostly new parts.
But as the 2CV no longer complied with safety regulations, the cars were sold as second-hand cars using chassis and engine numbers from old 2CVs.
The long-running series organized by The Classic 2CV Racing Club continues to be popular in the UK.
Some English nicknames include "Flying Dustbin", "Tin Snail", "Dolly", and "Tortoise".
The Citroen factory offered several high volume variants on the 2CV running gear � the ; the ; the ; and the.
In addition, several lower volume variants were produced.
One was mounted in the front driving the front wheels and one in the back driving the rear wheels.
A single gearstick, clutch pedal and accelerator were connected to both engines.
It was originally intended for use by the French colonies in Northern Africa.
As well as a decreased chance apprenticeship reviews blackjack being stranded, it provided four-wheel-drive traction with continuous drive to some wheels while others were slipping because the engine transmissions were uncoupled.
Therefore, it became popular with enthusiasts.
Between 1958 and 1971, Citroen built 694 Saharas.
These rare vehicles are highly collectible.
The was also built as a 4?4 from May 1979, but with only one engine and a reduction gear.
Bijou The was built at the Citroen factory inUK in the early 1960s.
It was a two-door fibreglass-bodied version of the 2CV designed by Peter Kirwan-Taylor, who had been involved in styling the original 1950s.
The design was thought to be more acceptable in appearance to British consumers than the standard 2CV.
It was also more expensive than the Austin Mini, which was more practical.
Citroen Coccinelle project The was a range of experimental non-production vehicles created by from 1955 to 1956 under the direction of.
The idea was to produce a -shaped, very lightweight vehicle, which would be more modern and smaller than the 2CV.
One of the prototypes, the Citroen C-10 has survived and is still owned by.
The overall look of the vehicle was quite similar to the.
It was equipped with the same 425 cc engine as the 2CV.
The vehicle was also nicknamed Citroen Coccinelle Ladybug or Ladybird in French.
In the UK, Louis Barber builds single-engined four-wheel-drive 2CVs.
In the late 1990s, from BBC Top Gear tested one against a Landrover Defender off-road.
Another very different double front-ended, four-wheel drive but not at the same time 2CV, the 1952 Citroen Cogolin, also known as the Bicephale, was built for the French Fire Service � the Sapeur-Pompiers.
This was meant to enable the car to drive into a narrow position and away again without having to turn.
Boot extensions Some owners wished to have more luggage capacity in the 2CV sedan.
Early 2CV could be fitted with a rounded aftermarket boot trunk lid, reminiscent of a post-war "big boot".
Some late model owners fitted an extension to the car's.
This used the original boot lid and hinges, but in a horizontal position with the extension underneath.
click here Complete knock down CKD locally built cars The Greek market and African market and were flat-panelled Mehari type, 2CV based utility cars, built from kits of mechanical parts, with many components sourced locally.
They were built in assembly plants.
There was widespread production of similar 2CV-based vehicles in a large number of countries, including Iran Baby-Brousse, Jyane-MehariVietnam DalatChile YaganBelgium VanCleeSpain, Portugal and others.
Kit cars and specials Examples of 2CV-based kit sports cars include the Pembleton, and the from Britain, and and Patron from the Netherlands.
Most are also available as three wheelers single wheel at the rearlike an early sports car.
Some have been fitted with larger air-cooled twin-cylinder motorcycle engines.
For transportation purposes, some saloon models were rebuilt into vans using fibreglass reconstructions of corrugated 2CV Fourgonnette rear box sections.
The "Bedouin" was a flat-panel wooden-bodied kit car.
UMAP coupe The small French company UMAP was established in 1956 in the northern French village ofby Camille Martin, the former mayor.
The acronym UMAP stands for Usine Moderne d'Applications Plastiques � Factory for Modern Plastic Applications.
UMAP produced the SM 425 and SM 500 from 1957, two externally identical coupes based on the Citroen 2CV.
In 1958 production was discontinued.
Le site reference sur la 2CV in French.
Retrieved 7 September 2016.
Channel 4 � Equinox.
Retrieved 12 April 2017.
Archived from on 7 April 2014.
Retrieved 18 June 2014.
Wheels, The New York Times.
The Globe and Mail.
Retrieved 21 August 2016.
Automotive Research Library of the Horseless Carriage Foundation, Inc.
Retrieved 29 August 2016.
World in Motion 1939, The whole of the year's automobile production.
Toutes les Voitures Francaises 1940�46 les Annees Sans Salon.
Retrieved 3 April 2017.
Retrieved 3 April 2017.
Retrieved 19 January 2019 � via Citroenet.
Archived from on 20 March 2011.
Retrieved 3 December 2011.
The Car's the Star.
Retrieved 20 August 2009.
Retrieved 29 August 2016.
Retrieved 17 February 2012.
Retrieved 12 April 2017.
Retrieved 12 April 2017.
Archived from on 7 January 2017.
Retrieved 13 October apk live blackjack 21 android />Retrieved 3 December 2011.
Retrieved 3 December 2011.
L'Auto Journal in French.
Retrieved 10 July 2016.
Toutes les Voitures Francaises 1982 aucon Salon a Paris 1981.
Retrieved 21 August 2009.
List of DVLA statistics.
Retrieved 16 October 2016.
Retrieved 9 June 2017.
Retrieved 22 February 2011.
Retrieved 1 August 2011.
FCIA � French Cars In America.
Retrieved 7 May 2017.
Retrieved 2 May 2009.
Archived from on 29 July 2017.
Retrieved 24 April 2017.
Retrieved 12 May 2017.
Retrieved 1 December 2007.
Retrieved 7 January 2010.
Archived from on 6 February 2007.
Retrieved 28 May 2008.
Retrieved 7 January 2010.
Retrieved 7 January 2010.
Retrieved 19 January 2019 � via Citroenet.
Retrieved 19 January 2019 � via Citroenet.
Retrieved 19 January 2019 � via Citroenet.
Retrieved 17 April 2014.
Retrieved 19 January 2019 � via Autospeed.
Retrieved 19 May 2012.
Citroen � Unorthodox Suspension".
Retrieved 23 July 2015.
Retrieved 4 March 2019.
Archived from PDF oyunu izle 21 blackjack 16 March 2012.
Retrieved 25 December 2010.
Retrieved 19 January 2019.
Retrieved 13 October 2012.
Retrieved 13 October 2012.
Retrieved 16 October 2016.
Archived from on 29 April 2013.
Retrieved 13 October 2012.
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Retrieved 7 January 2010.
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Retrieved 7 January 2010.
Retrieved 17 April 2014.
Toutes les Citroen, des origines a nos jours.
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The Citroen 2CV French: "deux chevaux" i.
The 2CV featured low cost, simplicity of overall maintenance, an easily serviced originally just click for source 9 hplow fuel consumption, and an extremely long-travel suspension offering a soft ride and.
Often source "an umbrella on wheels", the bodywork featured a full-width, canvas, roll-backwhich accommodated oversized loads and until 1955 reached almost to the car's rear bumper.
Manufactured in France between 1948 and 1988 and in Portugal from 1988 to 1990more than 3.
Citroen ultimately offered several mechanically identical variants including the over 1.
In total, Citroen manufactured almost 9 million 2CVs and variants.
A 1953 technical review in described "the extraordinary ingenuity of this design, which is undoubtedly the most original since fiat 500 blackjack chile ".
In 2011, called it a "car like no other".
The motoring writer described the 2CV as "the most intelligent application of minimalism ever to succeed as a car", and a car of "remorseless rationality".
Development In 1934, family-ownedas the largest creditor, took over the bankrupt Citroen company.
The new management commissioned a market survey, conducted by Jacques Duclos.
One design parameter required that customers be able to drive eggs across a freshly ploughed field without breakage.
In 1936,vice-president of Citroen and chief of engineering and design, sent the brief to his design team at the engineering department.
The TPV Toute Petite Voiture � "Very Small Car" was to be developed in secrecy at Michelin facilities at Clermont-Ferrand and at Citroen in Paris, by the design team who had created the.
Boulanger closely monitored all decisions relating to the TPV, proposing strictly reduced target weights.
He created a department to weigh and redesign each component, to lighten the TPV without compromising function.
Three unrestored TPVs Boulanger placed engineer in charge of the TPV project.
Lefebvre had designed and raced Grand Prix cars; his speciality was chassis design and he was particularly interested in maintaining contact between tyres and the road surface.
The first prototypes were bare chassis with rudimentary controls, seating and roof; test drivers wore leather flying suits, of the type used in contemporary open biplanes.
By the end of 1937 20 TPV experimental prototypes had been built and tested.
The prototypes had only one headlight, all that was required by French law at the time.
On 29 December 1937, was killed in a car crash; Boulanger became president of Citroen.
By 1939 the TPV was deemed ready, after 47 technically different and incrementally blackjack automatic win experimental had been built and tested.
These prototypes used aluminium and parts and had water-cooled flat click here engines with front-wheel drive.
The seats were hung from the roof by wires.
The suspension system, designed by Alphonse Forceau, used front leading arms and rear trailing arms, connected to eight torsion bars beneath the rear seat: a bar for the front axle, one for the rear axle, an intermediate bar for each side, and an overload bar for each side.
The front axle was connected to its torsion bars by cable.
The overload bar came into play when the car had three people on board, two in the front and one in the rear, to support the extra load of a fourth passenger and fifty kilograms read more luggage.
Brochures were printed and preparations made to present the car, renamed the Citroen 2CV, at the forthcoming in October 1939.
One innovation included from the beginning of production was 's newfirst commercialised with the introduction of the 2CV.
This radial design is an integral part of the design of the 2CV chassis.
World War II Restored Citroen TPV with a single headlight On 3 September 1939, France declared war on Germany following that country's invasion of Poland.
An atmosphere of impending disaster led to the cancellation of the 1939 motor show less than a month before it was scheduled to open.
The launch of the 2CV was abandoned.
During the Boulanger personally refused to collaborate with German authorities to the point where the listed him as an "enemy of the Reich", under constant threat of arrest and deportation to Germany.
Michelin Citroen's main shareholder and Citroen managers decided to hide the TPV project from the Nazis, fearing some military fiat 500 blackjack chile as in the case of the futuremanufactured during the war as the military.
Several TPVs were buried at secret locations; one was disguised as a pickup, the others were destroyed, and Boulanger spent the next six years thinking about further improvements.
Until 1994, when three TPVs were discovered in a barn, it was believed that only two prototypes had survived.
As of 2003 there were five known TPVs.
Boulanger decided to redesign the car to use mostly steel with flat panels, instead of aluminium.
The Nazis had attempted to loot Citroen's press tools; this was frustrated after Boulanger got the to relabel the rail cars containing them in the Paris marshalling yard.
They ended up all over Europe, and Citroen are casino with blackjack and apologise by no means sure they would all be returned link the war.
In early 1944 Boulanger made the decision to abandon the water-cooled two-cylinder engine developed for the car and installed in the 1939 versions.
Becchia was also supposed to design a three-speed gearbox, but managed to design a four-speed for the same space at little extra cost.
At this time small French cars like the and usually featured three-speed transmissions, as did Citroen's own mid-size � but the 1936 Italian "people's car" did have a four-speed gearbox.
Becchia persuaded Boulanger that the fourth gear was an overdrive.
The increased number of gear ratios also helped to pull the extra weight of changing from light alloys to steel for the body and chassis.
Other changes included seats with tubular steel frames with rubber band springing and a restyling of the body by the Italian.
The development and production of what was to become the 2CV was also delayed by the incoming 1944 Socialist French government, after the liberation by the Allies from the Germans.
The five-year "Plan Pons" to rationalise car production and husband scarce resources, named after economist and former French motor industry executiveonly allowed Citroen the upper middle range of the car market, with the Traction Avant.
The French government allocated the economy car market, US aid, US production equipment and supplies of steel, to newly nationalised Renault to produce its.
The "Plan Pons" came to an end in 1949.
Postwar French roads were very different from pre-war ones.
Horse-drawn vehicles had re-appeared in large numbers.
Only 100,000 of the two million pre-war cars were still on the road.
The time was known as "Les annees grises" or "the grey years" in France.
Production Early AZU fourgonnette rear Citroen unveiled the car at the Paris Salon on 7 October 1948.
The car on display was nearly identical to the 2CV type A that would be sold the next year, but it lacked an electric starter, the addition of which was decided the day before the opening of the Salon, replacing the starter.
The roof could be rolled completely open.
The Type A had oneand was only available in grey.
The only other instrument was an.
The car was heavily criticised by the motoring press and became the butt of French comedians for a short while.
One American motoring journalist quipped, "Does it come with a can opener?
Despite critics, Citroen was flooded with customer orders at the show.
The car had a great impact on the lives of the low-income segment of the continue reading in France.
The 2CV was a commercial success: within months of it going on sale, there was a three-year waiting list, which soon victorian tattslotto results to five years.
At the time a second-hand 2CV was more expensive than a new one because the buyer did not have to wait.
Production was increased from 876 units in 1949 to 6,196 units in 1950.
Grudging respect began to emanate from the international press: towards the end of 1951 the opinion appeared in Germany's recently launched magazine that, despite its "ugliness and primitiveness" "Ha?lichkeit und Primitivitat"the 2CV was a "highly interesting" "hochinteressantes" car.
In 1950, was killed in a car crash on the main road from Clermont-Ferrand the home of Michelin to Paris.
In 1951 the 2CV received an ignition lock and a lockable continue reading door.
Production reached 100 cars a week.
By the end of 1951 production totalled 16,288.
Citroen introduced the 2CV Fourgonnette panel van.
The "Weekend" version of the van had collapsible, removable rear seating and rear side windows, enabling a tradesman to use it as a family vehicle on the weekend as well as for business in the week.
Boulanger's policy, which continued after his death, was: "Priority is given to those who have to travel by car because of their work, and for whom ordinary cars are too expensive to buy.
In 1954 the speedometer got a light for night driving.
In 1955 the 2CV side repeaters were added above and behind the rear doors.
It was now also available with blackjack bluebook ii cc AZ12.
In 1957 a heating and ventilation system was installed.
The colour of the steering wheel changed fiat 500 blackjack chile black to grey.
The mirrors and the rear window were enlarged.
The bonnet was decorated with a longitudinal strip of aluminium AZL.
In September 1957, the model AZLP P for porte de malle, "boot lid"appeared with a lid panel; previously the soft top had to be opened at the bottom to get to the boot.
In 1958 a Belgian Citroen plant produced a higher quality version of the car AZL3.
It had a third side window, not available in the normal version, and improved details.
In the front fenders rectangular turn signals were integrated on some export models.
The corrugated metal bonnet was replaced by a five-rib glossy cover.
Simultaneously, the grille was slightly modified flatter shape with a curved top edge.
This had an additional engine-transmission unit in the rear, mounted the other way around and driving the rear wheels.
For the second engine there was a separate push-button starter and choke.
With a gearstick between the front seats, both transmissions were operated simultaneously.
For the two engines, there were separate petrol tanks under the front seats.
The filler neck sat in the front doors.
Both engines and hence axles could be operated independently.
The spare wheel was mounted on the bonnet.
The car had ample off-road capability, but at twice the price of the standard 2CV.
Many were used by the Swiss Post as a delivery vehicle.
Today they are highly collectible.
In 1960 the corrugated style "ripple bonnet" of convex swages was replaced except for the Saharawith one using six larger concave swages and looked similar until the end of production.
In 1961 Citroen launched a new model based on the 2CV chassis, with a four-door sedan body, and a reverse rake rear window: the.
In 1962 the engine power was increased to 14 hp 10.
A sunroof was installed.
In 1963 the engine power was increased to 16 hp 11.
An electric wiper motor replaced the drive on the speedometer.
The ammeter was replaced by a charging indicator light.
The speedometer was moved from the window frame into the dash.
Ad copy came from Jacques Wolgensinger Director of PR at Citroen.
Wolgensinger was responsible for the youth orientated "Raids", 2CV Cross, rallies, the use of "Tin-Tin", and the slogan "More than just a car � a way of life".
A range of colours was introduced, starting with Glacier Blue in 1959, then yellow in 1960.
In the 1960s 2CV production caught up with demand.
In February 1965 Citroen Belgium introduced the 3CV AZAM6 which featured the 602 cc, 23 PS 16.
This version was manufactured until October 1967 and was also exported to certain continental markets although it was never offered in France.
In 1967, Citroen launched a new model based on the 2CV chassis, with an updated but still utilitarian body, with a a hatchback kit was available from Citroen dealers for the 2CV, and aftermarket kits are available that boosted practicality: the.
The exterior is more modern and distinguished by the recessed lights in the fenders and bodywork.
Between 1967 and 1983 about 1.
This was in response to competition by the.
The Dyane was originally planned as an upmarket version of the 2CV and was supposed to supersede it, but ultimately the 2CV outlived the Dyane by seven years.
Citroen also developed the.
From 1965, the car was offered in some countries, at extra cost, with the engine size increased to 602 cc 36.
This was replaced by an updated 435 cc 26.
From 1970, only two series were produced: the 2CV 4 AZKB with 435 cc and the 2CV 6 Azka with 602 cc displacement.
All 2CVs from this date can run on unleaded fuel.
In 1971 the front bench seat was replaced with two individual seats.
In 1972 2CVs were fitted with standard three-point seat belts.
In 1973 new seat covers, a padded single-spoke steering wheel and ashtrays were introduced.
Sales of the 2CV were reinvigorated by the.
The 2CV after this time became as much a youth lifestyle statement as a basic functional form of click the following article />This renewed popularity was encouraged by the Citroen "Raid" intercontinental endurance rallies of the 1970s where customers could participate by buying a new 2CV, fitted with a "P.
The Paris to rally was the most famous.
The round headlights were replaced by square ones, adjustable in height.
A new plastic grille was fitted.
Between 1975 and 1990 under the name of AZKB "2CV Special" a drastically reduced trim basic version was sold, at first only in yellow and with an untreated black roof.
Slimmer bumpers with stick-on tape rather than plastic strips and no overriders were fitted.
It also had the earlier round headlights, last fitted in 1974.
visit web page order to keep the price as low as possible, Citroen removed the third side window, the ashtray, and virtually all trim from the car, while that which remained was greatly simplified, such as simple vinyl-clad door cards and exposed door catches rather than the plastic moulded trims found on the 2CV Club.
Other 2CVs shared their instruments with the Dyane and H-Van but the Special had a much smaller square speedometer also incorporating the fuel gauge, originally fitted to the 2CV in the mid-1960s and then discontinued.
The model also had a revised and cheaper-to-make plastic version of the 1960s two-spoke steering wheel instead of the one-spoke item from the Dyane, as found on the Club.
From the 1978 the Special regained third side windows, and was available in red and white; beginning in mid-1979 the 602 cc engine was installed.
In June 1981 the Special E arrived; this model had a standard and particularly low urban fuel consumption.
Citroen itself now had the available.
Peak annual production for 2CVs was reached in 1974 163,143 cars but by 1980 this had dropped to 89,994 and by 1983 would stand at just 59,673.
None the less the car remained profitable for PSA to produce on account of its tooling and set-up costs being amortised many years before and it could share major parts with more popular or profitable models such as the Visa and.
As part of this rationalisation in 1981 the Special was fitted as standard with the 602 cc engine, although the 435 cc version remained available to special order in some European countries until stocks were used up.
Also in 1981 a yellow 2CV6 was driven by in the 1981 film.
The car in the film was fitted with the engine from a which more than doubled the power.
In one scene the ultra light 2CV tips over and is quickly righted by hand.
Citroen launched a special edition 2CV "007" to coincide with the film; it was fitted with the standard engine and painted yellow with "007" on the front doors and fake bullet hole stickers.
In 1982 all 2CV models got inboard front disc brakes, which also used instead of conventional brake fluid - the same as was found in the larger Citroen models with.
In late 1986 Citroen introduced the Visa's replacement, the.
This was widely regarded as a superior car to the Visa and took many of the remaining 2CV sales in France following its introduction.
From 1986 to 1987 2CV production fell by 20 per cent to just 43,255 cars.
Of that total over 12,500 went to and 7212 went to the UK.
France was now the third-largest market for 2CVs, taking 7045 cars that year.
It was estimated that Citroen was now selling the 2CV at a loss in the French market, but that it was still profitable in other European countries.
The peak of 2CV sales in the United Kingdom would be reached in 1986, thanks to the introduction of the popular Dolly special edition see below - 7520 new 2CVs were registered in Britain that year.
This year saw the discontinuation of the Club, which was by then the only 2CV model to retain the rectangular headlamps.
This left the Special as the only regular 2CV model, alongside the more fashion-orientated Dolly, Charleston and the other special editions.
In 1988, production ended in France after 40 years.
The factory at had been the global centre for 2CV production since 1948 but was outdated, inefficient and widely criticised for its poor working conditions.
The last French-built 2CV was made on February 25.
In recognition of the event, the last 2CV built at Levallois was a basic Special in a non-standard grey colour - the same shade as worn by the very first 2CVs.
Production of the 2CV would continue at the smaller-capacity but more modern plant in Portugal.
In 1989 the first were introduced voluntarily by a number of European nations, ahead of the legal deadline of July 1992.
This meant that the 2CV was withdrawn from sale in Austria, Denmark, Italy, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands - the latter one of the car's largest remaining markets.
That year the three leading markets for the 2CV were West Germany 7866France 5231 and the UK 3200.
The last 2CV was built at Mangualde on 27 July 1990 - it was a specially-prepared Charleston model.
Only 42,365 2CVs were built in Portugal in the two years following the end of French production.
Portuguese-built cars, especially those from when production was winding down, have a reputation in the UK for being much less well made and more prone to corrosion than those made in France.
According to Citroen, the Portuguese plant was more up-to-date than the one in near Paris, and Portuguese 2CV manufacturing was to higher quality standards.
As of October 2016, 3,025 remained in service in the UK.
In 1981 the 007 arrived.
In 1983 the 2CV Beachcomber arrived in the United Kingdom; it was known as "France 3" in France or "Transat" in other continental European markets � Citroen sponsored the French America's Cup yacht entry of that year.
In 1986 there was the Cocorico.
This means "cock-a-doodle-doo" and tied in with France's entry in the.
In 1987 came the Bamboo, followed by the 1988 Perrier in association with the mineral water company.
Other changes were a new rear-view mirror and inboard disc brakes at the front wheels.
Citroen 2CV6 Club � read more The Dolly special edition was introduced in March 1985, using bright two-tone colour schemes with a similar Art Deco style as the more subdued Charleston.
In its name, style and marketing the Dolly was particularly aimed at female car buyers, as in the mid-1980s research showed that 40% of 2CV buyers were women.
With demand for these models still high Citroen made the Dolly a permanent fixture in the 2CV range.
While the first two series had, like the other special editions, been based on the more luxurious Club model the production Dolly was based on the basic 2CV Special to provide a model priced between the Special and the Club.
In many markets, including Germany and the UK, the Dolly was best-selling 2CV model, outselling all the other variants combined in some years.
It was introduced mainly because of stricter emissions standards.
In 1987 it was replaced by the "Sausss-duck" special edition.
During the post-war years Citroen was very focused on the home market, which had some unusual quirks, like.
The management of was supportive of Citroen up to a point, and with a suspension designed to use Michelin's new the Citroen cars clearly demonstrated their superiority over their competitors' tyres.
But they were not prepared to initiate the investment needed for the 2CV or the for that matter to truly compete on the global stage.
Citroen was always under-capitalised until the 1970s Peugeot takeover.
Production of the 2CV in was from 1952 to 1980.
Production at Citroen's plant inEngland was from 1953 to 1960.
Until then British construction and use regulations made cars with inboard front brakes such as the 2CV illegal.
Producing the car in Britain allowed Citroen to circumvent trade barriers and to sell cars in the and.
It achieved some success in these markets, to the extent that all Slough-built 2CVs were fitted with improved air cleaners and other modifications to suit the rough conditions found in Australia and Africa, where the 2CV's durability and good ride quality over rough roads attracted buyers.
The 2CV sold poorly in Great Britain in part due to its excessive cost, because of import duties on components.
In 1959, the British ordered 65 2CV pick-ups from the Slough plant, following sea tests aboard in the West Indies and the Indian Ocean during 1957�58, with the Westland Whirlwind helicopters of 845 squadron RNAS.
The pick-ups also served aboard HMS.
They were to serve as motor transport with the 42nd Commando regiment of the Royal Marines, which required robust and reliable vehicles to cope with jungle tracks, that were light enough to be taken ashore by helicopter from the aircraft carriers.
In 1959 Slough introduced a unique model, the glass-fibre coupe version called the.
Styling of this car was by Peter Kirwan-Taylor better known for his work with of on the 1950sbut the bodywork proved too heavy for the 425 cc 25.
In 1975, the 2CV was re-introduced to the British market in the wake of the oil crisis, which resulted in an increasing demand for smaller cars, to which most manufacturers had responded by launching small "supermini" cars, including theand.
The second wave of 2CVs for the British market were produced in France but avoided the crippling import duties of the 1950s, because the UK was by then a member of the.
In the 1980s, the best foreign markets for the 2CV were the UK and West Germany.
The original model that produced 9 hp 6.
Also in 1959, the firm began producing the 2CV under licence at the plant, in what is today.
This venture lasted from 1959 to 1985, and grew to encompass many Citroen models.
The Yugoslav automobile market was closed, so this with a local firm allowed Citroen to access the market.
In the in 1963, a locally assembled 2CV was sold in some west African countries as the Citroen "".
This idea of building a "simplified" 2CV in developing countries was subsequently tried several times, as detailed under.
In 1972, the firm began production of the 2CV-based Pony.
In 1966, Citroen entered with the 2CV.
The 2CV was soon supplanted by the Jiane, a local version of the.
The cars were originally manufactured in Iran in a joint venture between Citroen and up until thewhen Iran National was nationalised, which continued producing the Jiane without the involvement of Citroen.
The 2CV was built in video blackjack mgm and for.
The 1953 Citroneta model of the 2CV made in Chile and Article source used a type AZ chassis with 425 cc engine developing 12 bhp 8.
Both chassis and engine were made in France while the "three box" bodywork in both 2- and 4-door versions was designed and produced in Chile.
It was the first economy car on the market in Chile.
The 1970s Chilean version mounted a 602 cc engine with an output of 33 hp 25 kWand was designated as the AX-330.
It was built between 1970 and 1978, during which it saw changes like different bumpers, a hard roof, front disc brakes, and square headlights.
A derivation called the "3CV" was built in Argentina with various modifications such as a hatchback.
Citroen had produced more than 200,000 cars in Argentina by 1977; production ended in 1979.
A 2CV with a heavily modified front end called the 3CV IES America was produced well into the 1980s, by an Argentinian company that bought the rights and factory from Citroen.
One of the models, named the Yagan after an tribe, was made in Chile between 1972 and 1973.
During the200 Yagans used by the Army to patrol the streets and the Peruvian border, with 106 mm 4.
All 2CVs have flap-up windows: roll up windows were considered too heavy and expensive in 1948, and the design thin doors did not allow any update.
While colours and detail specifications were modified in the ensuing 42 years, the biggest mechanical change was the addition of front by then already fitted for several years in the mechanically similar 6in October 1981 for the 1982 model year.
The reliability of the car was enhanced by the minimalist simplification of the designers, being air-cooled with an oil coolerit had no coolant, radiator, water pump or.
It had no distributor either, just a contact breaker system.
Except for the brakes, there were no hydraulic parts on original models; damping was by tuned mass dampers and friction dampers.
The 1948 car featuredwhich had just been commercialised; ; mounted inside the front suspension cross-tube, away from a frontal impact; rear the suspension design allowed wheel changes without removing the skirts ; bolt-on detachable front and rear wings; detachable doors, bonnet and boot lid after 1960by "slide out" P-profile sheet metal hinges; flap-up windows, as roll up windows were considered too heavy and expensive.
Ventilation in addition to the sunroof and front flap windows was provided by an opening flap under the windscreen.
The car had load adjustable headlights and a heater heaters were standardised on British economy cars in the 1960s.
Body The body was constructed of a dual H-frame platform and -style tube framework, and a very thin steel shell that was bolted to the chassis.
The 2CV used the fixed-profile convertible, where the doors and upper side elements of its bodywork remain fixed although, the doors could be removed easily too by lifting them up and way from the car.
The bonnet too could be removed by sliding sideways to allow extra ventilation on very hot days.
The fabric soft top can be rolled back and a picnic basket was available for purchase and fixed on the boot door.
This reduces weight and lowers the centre of gravity, and allows the carrying of long or irregularly shaped items, but the key reason was that fabric was cheaper than steel which was in short supply and expensive after the war.
The fixed-profile concept was quite popular in this period.
Thefore-aft linked suspension system with inboard front brakes had a much smaller than existing or designs.
The design was modified by Marcel Chinon.
The system comprises two suspension cylinders mounted horizontally on each side of the platform chassis.
Inside the cylinders are two springs, one for each wheel, mounted at each end of the cylinder.
The springs are connected to the front leading swinging arm and rear trailing swinging arm, that act like by pull rods tie rods.
These are connected to spring seating cups in the middle of the cylinder, each spring being compressed independently, against the ends of the cylinder.
Each cylinder is mounted using an additional set of springs, originally made from steel, called "volute" springs, on later models made from rubber.
These allow the front and rear suspension to interconnect.
When the front wheel is deflected up over a bump, the front pull rod compresses the front spring inside the cylinder, against the front of the cylinder.
This also compresses the front "volute" spring pulling the whole cylinder forwards.
That action pulls the rear wheel down on the same side via the rear spring assembly and pull rod.
When the rear wheel meets that bump a moment later, it does the same in reverse, keeping the car level front to rear.
When both springs are compressed on one side when travelling around a bend, or front and rear wheels hit bumps simultaneously, the equal and opposite forces applied to the front and rear spring assemblies reduce the interconnection.
A larger than conventional steeringensures that the front wheels are closer to vertical than the rears, when cornering hard with a lot of body roll.
The soft springing, long suspension travel and the use of leading and trailing arms means that as the body rolls during cornering the wheelbase on the outside of the corner increases while the wheelbase on the inside of the corner decreases.
As the cornering forces put more of the car's weight on the outside pair of wheels the wheelbase extends in proportion, keeping the car's weight balance and centre of grip constant, promoting excellent road read article />The other key factor in the quality of its road holding is the very low and forward centre of gravity, provided by the position of the engine and transmission.
The suspension also automatically accommodates differing payloads in the car- with four people and cargo on board the increases by around 4 cm 2 in as the suspension deflects, and the of the front wheels increases by as much as 8 degrees thus ensuring that ride quality, handling and road holding are almost unaffected by the additional weight.
On early cars friction dampers like a dry version of a multi-plate clutch design were fitted at the mountings of the front and rear swinging arms to the cross-tubes.
Because the rear brakes were outboard, they had extra tuned mass dampers to damp wheel bounce from the extra unsprung mass.
The uprated hydraulic damping obviated the need for the rear inertia dampers.
It was designed to be a comfortable ride by knives 125 review blackjack the frequencies encountered in human bipedal motion.
This suspension design ensured the road wheels followed ground contours underneath them closely, while insulating the vehicle from shocks, enabling the 2CV to be driven over a ploughed field without breaking any eggs, as its design brief required.
More importantly it could comfortably and safely drive at reasonable speed, along the ill-maintained and war-damaged post-war French Routes Nationales.
It was commonly driven "Pied au Plancher" � "foot to the floor" by their peasant owners.
Front-wheel drive and gearbox Citroen had developed expertise with due to the pioneeringwhich was the first mass-produced steel monocoque front-wheel-drive car in the world.
The 2CV was originally equipped with a sliding splined joint, and twin Hookes type universal joints on its driveshafts; later models used constant velocity joints and a sliding splined joint.
The gear stick came horizontally out of the dashboard with the handle curved upwards.
It had a strange shift pattern: the first was back on the left, the second and third were inline, and the fourth or the S could be engaged only by turning the lever to the right from the third.
Reverse was opposite first.
The idea was to put the most used gears opposite each other � for parking, first and reverse; for normal driving, second and third.
This layout was adopted from the H-van's three-speed gearbox.
Later models had an option for a semi-automatic clutch that allow the user to engage the first gear and wait at the traffic lights with the foot on the brakes only.
The wipers' speed was therefore dependent on car speed.
When the car was waiting at a crossroad, the wipers were not powered; thus, a handle under the speedometer allowed them to be operated by hand.
The wipers and speedometer could not be used at the same time.
From 1962, the wipers were powered by a single-speed electric motor.
The car came with only a speedometer and an ammeter.
In October 1981, front were fitted.
Disc brake cars use � which is not compatible with standard glycol.
It was an air-cooled,four-stroke, 375 cc engine with pushrod operated and a hemispherical combustion chamber.
The earliest model developed 9 PS 6.
A 425 cc engine was introduced in 1955, followed in 1968 by a 602 cc one giving 28 bhp 21 kW at 7000 rpm.
With the 602 cc engine, just click for source tax classification of the car changed so that it became a 3CV, but the name remained unchanged.
A 435 cc engine was introduced at the same time to replace the 425 cc; the 435 cc engine car was named 2CV 4 while the 602 cc took the name 2CV 6 a variant in Argentina took the name 3CV.
The 602 cc engine evolved to the M28 33 bhp 25 kW in 1970; this was the most powerful engine fitted to the 2CV.
A new 602 cc giving 29 bhp 22 kW at a slower 5,750 rpm was introduced in 1979.
This engine was less powerful, and more efficient, allowing lower fuel consumption and better top speed, at the price of decreased acceleration.
All 2CVs with the M28 engine can run on unleaded petrol.
The 2CV used the for simplicity and reliability and had only speed-controlled ignition timing, no vacuum advance taking account of engine load.
Unlike other air-cooled cars such as the and the the 2CV's engine had no valve in its oil system.
The engine needed more time for oil to reach normal operating temperature in cold weather.
All the oil passed through an oil fiat 500 blackjack chile behind the fan and received the full cooling effect regardless of the ambient temperature.
This removes the risk of overheating from a jammed thermostat that can afflict water- and air-cooled engines and the engine can withstand many hours of running under heavy load at high engine speeds even in hot weather.
To prevent the engine running cool in cold weather and to improve the output of the cabin heater all 2CVs were supplied with a grille blind canvas on early cars and a clip-on plastic item called a "muff" in the owner's handbook, on later ones which blocked around half the aperture to reduce the flow of air to the engine.
The and were built integrally with the one-pieceremoving the need for.
The use ofseen as another potential weak point for failure and leaks, was also kept to a minimum.
The are mated to the cylinder barrels by lapped joints with extremely fine tolerances, as are the two halves of the and other surface-to-surface joints.
On any 2-cylinder boxer engine such as the 2CV's, the volume of the crankcase reduces by the cubic capacity of the engine when the pistons move together.
This, combined with the inevitable small amount of "leakage" of combustion gases past the pistons leads to a positive pressure in the crankcase which must be removed in the interests of engine efficiency and to prevent oil and gas leaks.
The 2CV's engine has a combined engine "breather" and oil filler assembly which contains a series of rubber.
These allow positive pressure to escape the crankcase to the engine air intake to be recirculated but close when the pressure in the crankcase drops as the pistons move apart.
Because gases are continue reading but not admitted this creates a slight vacuum in the crankcase so that any weak joint or failed seal causes air to be sucked in rather than allowing oil to leak out.
These design features made the 2CV engine highly reliable; test engines were run at full speed for 1000 hours at a time, equivalent to driving 80,000 km 50,000 mi at full throttle.
They also meant that the engine was "sealed for life" � for example, replacing the big-end bearings required specialised equipment to dismantle and reassemble the built-up crankshaft, and as this was often not available the entire crankshaft had to be replaced.
The engine is very under-stressed and long-lived, so this is not a major issue.
This feature, once universal on cars and still common in 1948 when the 2CV was introduced, was kept until the end of production in 1990.
The last evolution of the 2CV engine was the flat-twin, a 652 cc featuring electronic ignition.
Citroen never sold this engine in the 2CV, but some enthusiasts click the following article converted their 2CVs to 652 engines, or even transplanted or GSA flat-four engines and gearboxes.
In the mid-1980s Steve Cropley ran and reported on a turbocharged 602cc 2CV that was developed by engineer Richard Wilsher.
Although the front of the chassis was designed to fold up, to form a according to a 1984 Speaking, hit or split blackjack apologise brochure, in common with other small cars of its era its was very poor by modern standards.
Its advanced underlying engineering was ignored or misunderstood by the public, being clothed in an anachronistic body.
It was the butt of many a joke, famously by in the UK.
Citroen had attempted to replace the ultra-utilitarian 2CV several times with the, and the.
Its comically antiquated appearance became an advantage to the car, and it became a which sold because it was different from anything else on sale.
Because of its down-to-earth style, it became popular with people who wanted to distance themselves from mainstream � "" � and also with environmentalists.
Officially, the last 2CV, a Charleston, which was reserved for Mangualde's plant manager, rolled off the Portuguese production line on 27 July 1990, although five additional 2CV Specials were produced afterwards.
In all a total of 3,867,932 2CVs were produced.
Including the commercial versions of the 2CV, Dyane, Mehari, FAF, and Ami variants, the 2CV's underpinnings spawned 8,830,679 vehicles.
The 2CV was outlived by contemporaries such as the out of production in 2000200319922013 and originally a 1950s2014.
The or Composite Concept Vehicle developed in the mid-1990s is a concept car designed to illustrate new manufacturing methods suitable for developing countries.
The car is a tall, roomy four-door sedan of small dimensions.
The designers at Chrysler said they were inspired to create a modernised 2CV.
The company Sorevie of was building 2CVs until 2002.
The cars were built from scratch using mostly new parts.
But as the 2CV no longer complied with safety regulations, the cars were sold as second-hand cars using chassis and engine numbers from old 2CVs.
The long-running series organized by The Classic 2CV Racing Club continues to be popular in fiat 500 blackjack chile UK.
Some English nicknames include "Flying Dustbin", "Tin Snail", "Dolly", and "Tortoise".
The Citroen factory offered several high volume variants on the 2CV running gear � the ; the ; the ; and the.
In addition, several lower volume variants were produced.
One was mounted in the front driving the front wheels and one in the back driving the rear wheels.
A single gearstick, clutch pedal and accelerator were connected to both engines.
It was originally intended for use by the French colonies in Northern Africa.
As well as a decreased chance of being stranded, it provided four-wheel-drive traction with continuous drive to some wheels while others were slipping because the engine transmissions were uncoupled.
Therefore, it became popular with enthusiasts.
Between 1958 and 1971, Citroen built 694 Saharas.
These rare vehicles are highly collectible.
The was also built as a 4?4 from May 1979, but with only one engine and a reduction gear.
Bijou The was built at the Citroen factory inUK in the early 1960s.
It was a two-door fibreglass-bodied version of the 2CV designed by Peter Kirwan-Taylor, who had been involved in styling the original 1950s.
The design was thought to be more acceptable in appearance to British consumers than the standard 2CV.
It was also more expensive than the Austin Mini, which was more practical.
Citroen Coccinelle project The was a range of experimental non-production vehicles created by from 1955 to 1956 under the direction of.
The idea was to produce a -shaped, very lightweight vehicle, which would be more modern and smaller than the 2CV.
One of the prototypes, the Citroen C-10 has survived and is still owned by.
The overall look of the vehicle was quite similar to fiat 500 blackjack chile />It was equipped with the same 425 cc engine as the 2CV.
The vehicle was also nicknamed Citroen Coccinelle Ladybug or Ladybird in French.
In the UK, Louis Barber builds single-engined four-wheel-drive 2CVs.
In the late 1990s, from BBC Top Gear tested one against a Landrover Defender off-road.
Another very different double front-ended, four-wheel drive but not at the same time 2CV, the 1952 Citroen Cogolin, also known as the Bicephale, was built for the French Fire Service � the Sapeur-Pompiers.
This was meant to enable the car to drive into a narrow position and away again without having to turn.
Boot extensions Some owners wished to have more luggage capacity in the 2CV sedan.
Early 2CV could be fitted with a rounded aftermarket boot trunk lid, reminiscent of a post-war "big boot".
Some late model owners fitted an extension to the car's.
This used the original boot lid and hinges, but in a horizontal position with the extension underneath.
UMAP Complete knock down CKD locally built cars The Greek market and African market and were flat-panelled Mehari type, 2CV based utility cars, built from kits of mechanical parts, with fiat 500 blackjack chile components sourced locally.
They were built in assembly plants.
There was widespread production of similar 2CV-based vehicles in a large number of countries, including Iran Baby-Brousse, Jyane-MehariVietnam DalatChile YaganBelgium VanCleeSpain, Portugal and others.
Kit cars and specials Examples of 2CV-based kit sports cars include the Pembleton, and the from Britain, and and Patron from the Netherlands.
Most are also available as three wheelers single wheel at the rearlike an early sports car.
Some have been fitted with larger air-cooled twin-cylinder motorcycle engines.
For transportation purposes, some saloon models were rebuilt into vans using fibreglass reconstructions of corrugated 2CV Fourgonnette rear box sections.
The "Bedouin" was a flat-panel wooden-bodied kit car.
UMAP coupe The small French company UMAP was established in 1956 in the northern French village ofby Camille Martin, the former mayor.
The acronym UMAP stands for Usine Moderne d'Applications Plastiques � Factory for Modern Plastic Applications.
UMAP produced the SM 425 and SM 500 from 1957, two externally identical coupes based on the Citroen 2CV.
In 1958 production was discontinued.
Le site reference sur la 2CV in French.
Retrieved 7 September 2016.
Channel 4 � Equinox.
Retrieved 12 April 2017.
Archived from on 7 April 2014.
Retrieved 18 June 2014.
Wheels, The New York Times.
The Globe and Mail.
Retrieved 21 August 2016.
Automotive Research Library of the Horseless Carriage Foundation, Inc.
Retrieved 29 August 2016.
World in Motion 1939, The whole of the year's automobile production.
Toutes les Voitures Francaises 1940�46 les Annees Sans Salon.
Retrieved 3 April 2017.
Retrieved 3 April 2017.
Retrieved 19 January 2019 � via Citroenet.
Archived from on 20 March 2011.
Retrieved 3 December 2011.
The Car's the Star.
Retrieved 20 August 2009.
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Retrieved 17 February 2012.
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Retrieved 12 April 2017.
Archived from on 7 January 2017.
Retrieved 13 October 2012.
Retrieved 3 December 2011.
Retrieved 3 December 2011.
L'Auto Journal in French.
Retrieved 10 July 2016.
Toutes les Voitures Francaises 1982 aucon Salon a Paris 1981.
Retrieved 21 August 2009.
List of DVLA statistics.
Retrieved 16 October 2016.
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FCIA � French Cars In America.
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Archived from on 6 February 2007.
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Retrieved 7 Fiat 500 blackjack chile 2010.
Retrieved 19 January 2019 � via Citroenet.
Retrieved 19 January 2019 � via Citroenet.
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Citroen � Unorthodox Suspension".
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Toutes les Citroen, des origines a nos jours.
Citroen 2CV Ultimate Portfolio.
The Classic Citroens 1935�1975.

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The Citroen 2CV French: "deux chevaux" i.
The 2CV featured low cost, simplicity of overall maintenance, an easily serviced originally offering 9 hplow fuel consumption, and an extremely long-travel suspension blackjack trucos a soft ride and.
Often called "an umbrella on wheels", the bodywork featured a full-width, canvas, roll-backwhich accommodated oversized loads and until 1955 reached almost to the car's rear bumper.
Manufactured in France between 1948 and 1988 and in Portugal from 1988 to 1990more than 3.
Citroen ultimately offered several mechanically identical variants including the over 1.
In total, Citroen manufactured almost 9 million 2CVs and variants.
A 1953 technical review in described "the extraordinary ingenuity of this design, which is undoubtedly the most original since the ".
In 2011, called it a "car like no other".
The motoring writer described the 2CV as "the most intelligent application of minimalism ever to succeed as a car", and a car of "remorseless rationality".
Development In 1934, family-ownedas the largest creditor, took over the bankrupt Citroen company.
The new management commissioned a market survey, conducted by Jacques Duclos.
One design parameter required that customers be able to drive eggs across a freshly ploughed field without breakage.
In 1936,vice-president of Citroen and chief of engineering and design, sent the brief to his design team at the engineering department.
The TPV Toute Petite Voiture � "Very Small Car" was to be developed in secrecy at Michelin facilities at Clermont-Ferrand and at Citroen in Paris, by the design team who had created the.
Boulanger closely monitored all decisions relating to the TPV, proposing strictly reduced target weights.
He created a department to weigh and redesign each component, to lighten the TPV without compromising function.
Three unrestored TPVs Boulanger placed engineer in charge of the TPV project.
Lefebvre had designed and raced Grand Prix cars; his speciality was chassis design and he was particularly interested in maintaining contact between tyres and the road surface.
The first prototypes were bare chassis with rudimentary controls, seating and roof; test drivers wore leather flying suits, of the type used in contemporary open biplanes.
By the end of 1937 20 TPV experimental prototypes had been built and tested.
The prototypes had only one headlight, all that was required by French law at the time.
On 29 December 1937, was killed in a car crash; Boulanger became president of Citroen.
By 1939 the TPV was deemed ready, after 47 technically different and incrementally improved experimental had been built and tested.
These prototypes used aluminium and parts and had water-cooled flat twin engines with front-wheel drive.
The seats were hung from the roof by wires.
The suspension system, designed by Alphonse Forceau, used front leading arms and rear trailing arms, connected to eight torsion bars beneath the rear seat: a bar for the front axle, one for the rear axle, an intermediate bar for each side, and an overload bar fiat 500 blackjack chile each side.
The front axle was connected to its torsion bars by cable.
The overload bar came into play when the car had three people on board, two in the front and one in the rear, to support the extra load of a fourth passenger and fifty kilograms of luggage.
Brochures were printed and preparations made to present the car, renamed the Citroen 2CV, at the forthcoming in October 1939.
One innovation included from the beginning of production was 's newfirst commercialised with the introduction of the 2CV.
This radial design is an integral part of the design of the 2CV chassis.
World War II Restored Citroen TPV with a single headlight On 3 September 1939, France declared war on Germany following that country's invasion of Poland.
An atmosphere of impending disaster led to the cancellation of the 1939 motor show less than a month before it was scheduled to open.
The launch of the 2CV was abandoned.
During the Boulanger personally refused to collaborate with German authorities to the point where the listed him as an "enemy of the Reich", under constant threat of arrest and deportation to Germany.
Michelin Citroen's main shareholder and Citroen managers decided to hide the TPV project from the Nazis, fearing some military application as in the case of the futuremanufactured during the war as the military.
Several TPVs were buried at secret locations; one was disguised as a pickup, the others were destroyed, and Boulanger spent the next six years thinking about further improvements.
Until 1994, when three TPVs were discovered in a barn, it was believed that only two prototypes had survived.
As of 2003 there were five known TPVs.
Boulanger decided to redesign the car to use mostly steel with flat panels, instead of aluminium.
The Nazis had attempted to loot Citroen's press tools; this was frustrated after Boulanger got the to relabel the rail cars containing them in the Paris marshalling yard.
They ended up all over Europe, and Citroen was by no means sure they would all be returned after the war.
In early 1944 Boulanger made the decision to abandon the water-cooled two-cylinder engine developed for the car and installed in the 1939 versions.
Becchia was also supposed to design a three-speed gearbox, but managed to design a four-speed for the same space at little extra cost.
At this time small French cars like the and usually featured three-speed transmissions, as did Citroen's own mid-size � but the 1936 Italian "people's car" did have a four-speed gearbox.
Becchia persuaded Boulanger that the fourth gear was an overdrive.
The increased number of gear ratios also helped to pull the extra weight of changing from light alloys to steel for the body and chassis.
Other changes included seats with tubular steel frames with rubber band springing and a restyling of the body by the Italian.
The development and production of what was to become the 2CV was also delayed by the incoming 1944 Socialist French government, after the liberation by the Allies from the Germans.
The five-year "Plan Pons" to rationalise car production and husband scarce resources, named after economist and former French motor industry executiveonly allowed Citroen the upper middle range of the car market, with the Traction Avant.
The French fiat 500 blackjack chile allocated the economy car market, US aid, US production equipment and supplies of steel, to newly nationalised Renault to produce its.
The "Plan Pons" came to an end in 1949.
Postwar French roads were very different from pre-war ones.
Horse-drawn vehicles had re-appeared in large numbers.
Only 100,000 of the two million pre-war cars were still on the road.
The time was known as "Les annees grises" or "the grey years" in France.
Production Early AZU fourgonnette rear Citroen unveiled the car at the Paris Salon on 7 October 1948.
The car on display was nearly share winstar blackjack ante join to the 2CV type A that would be sold the next year, but it lacked an electric starter, the addition of which was decided the day before the opening of the Salon, replacing the starter.
The roof could be rolled completely open.
The Type A had oneand was only available in grey.
The only other instrument was an.
The car was heavily criticised by the motoring press and became the butt of French comedians for a short while.
One American motoring journalist quipped, "Does it come with a can opener?
Despite critics, Citroen was flooded with customer orders at the show.
The car had a great impact on the lives of the low-income segment of the population in France.
The 2CV was a commercial success: within months of it going on sale, there was a three-year waiting list, which soon increased to five years.
At the time a second-hand 2CV was more expensive than a new one because the buyer did not have to wait.
Production was increased from 876 units in 1949 to 6,196 units in 1950.
Grudging respect began to emanate from the international press: towards the end of 1951 the opinion appeared in Germany's recently launched magazine that, despite its "ugliness and primitiveness" "Ha?lichkeit und Primitivitat"the 2CV was a "highly interesting" "hochinteressantes" car.
In 1950, was killed in a car crash on the main road from Clermont-Ferrand the home of Michelin to Paris.
In 1951 the 2CV received an ignition lock and a lockable driver's door.
Production reached 100 cars a week.
By the end of 1951 production totalled 16,288.
Citroen introduced the 2CV Fourgonnette panel van.
The "Weekend" version of the van had collapsible, removable rear seating and rear side windows, enabling a tradesman to use it as a family vehicle on the weekend as well as for business in the week.
Boulanger's policy, which continued after his death, was: "Priority is given to those who have to travel by car because of their work, and for whom ordinary cars are too expensive to buy.
In 1954 the speedometer got a light for night driving.
In 1955 the 2CV side repeaters were added above and behind the rear doors.
It was now also available with 425 cc AZ12.
In 1957 a heating and ventilation system was installed.
The colour of the steering wheel changed from black to grey.
The mirrors and the rear window were enlarged.
The bonnet was decorated with a longitudinal strip of aluminium AZL.
In September 1957, the model AZLP Please click for source for porte de malle, "boot lid"appeared with a lid panel; previously the soft top had to be opened at the bottom to get to the boot.
In 1958 a Belgian Citroen plant produced a higher quality version of the car AZL3.
It had a third side window, not available in the normal version, and improved details.
In visit web page front fenders rectangular turn signals were integrated on some export models.
The corrugated metal bonnet was replaced by a five-rib glossy cover.
Simultaneously, the grille was slightly modified flatter shape with a curved top edge.
This had an additional engine-transmission unit in the rear, mounted the other way around and driving the rear wheels.
For the second engine there was a separate push-button starter and choke.
With a gearstick between the front seats, both transmissions were operated simultaneously.
For the two engines, there were separate petrol tanks under the front seats.
The filler neck sat in the front doors.
Both engines and hence axles could be operated independently.
The spare wheel was mounted on the bonnet.
The car had ample off-road capability, but at twice the price of the standard 2CV.
Many were used by the Swiss Post as a delivery vehicle.
Today they are highly collectible.
In 1960 the corrugated style "ripple bonnet" of convex swages was replaced except for the Saharawith one using six larger concave swages and looked similar until the end of production.
In 1961 Citroen launched a new model based on the 2CV chassis, with a four-door sedan body, and a reverse rake rear window: the.
In 1962 the engine power was increased to 14 hp 10.
A sunroof was installed.
In 1963 the engine power was increased to 16 hp 11.
An electric wiper motor replaced the drive on the speedometer.
The ammeter was replaced by a charging indicator light.
The speedometer was moved read more the window frame into the dash.
Ad copy came from Jacques Wolgensinger Director of PR at Citroen.
Wolgensinger was responsible for the youth orientated "Raids", 2CV Cross, rallies, the use of "Tin-Tin", and the slogan "More than just a car � a way of life".
A range of colours was introduced, starting with Glacier Blue in 1959, then yellow in 1960.
In the 1960s 2CV production caught up with demand.
In February 1965 Citroen Belgium introduced the 3CV AZAM6 which featured the 602 cc, 23 PS 16.
This version was manufactured until October 1967 and was also exported to certain continental markets although it was never offered in France.
In 1967, Citroen launched a new model based on the 2CV chassis, with an updated but still utilitarian body, with a a hatchback kit was available from Citroen dealers for the 2CV, and aftermarket kits are available that boosted practicality: the.
The exterior is more modern and distinguished by the recessed lights in the fenders and bodywork.
Between 1967 and 1983 about 1.
This was in response to competition by the.
The Dyane was originally planned as an upmarket version of the 2CV and was supposed to supersede it, but ultimately the 2CV outlived the Dyane by seven years.
Citroen also developed the.
From 1965, the car was offered in some countries, at extra cost, with the engine size increased to 602 cc 36.
This was replaced by an updated 435 cc 26.
From 1970, only two series were produced: the 2CV 4 AZKB with 435 cc and the 2CV 6 Azka with 602 cc displacement.
All 2CVs from this date can run on unleaded fuel.
In 1971 the front bench seat was replaced with two individual seats.
In 1972 2CVs were fitted with standard three-point seat belts.
In 1973 new seat covers, a padded single-spoke steering wheel and ashtrays were introduced.
Sales of the 2CV were reinvigorated by the.
The 2CV after this time became as much a youth lifestyle statement as a basic functional form of transport.
This renewed popularity was encouraged by the Citroen "Raid" intercontinental endurance rallies of the 1970s where customers could participate by buying a new 2CV, fitted with a "P.
The Paris to rally was the most famous.
The round headlights were replaced by square ones, adjustable in height.
A new plastic grille was fitted.
Between 1975 and 1990 under the name of AZKB "2CV Special" a drastically reduced trim basic version was sold, at first only in yellow and with an untreated black roof.
Slimmer bumpers with stick-on tape rather than plastic strips and no overriders were fitted.
It also had the earlier round headlights, last fitted in 1974.
In order to keep the price as low as possible, Citroen removed the third side window, the ashtray, and virtually all trim from the car, while that which remained was greatly simplified, such as simple vinyl-clad door cards and exposed door catches rather than the plastic moulded trims found on the 2CV Club.
Other 2CVs shared their instruments with the Dyane and H-Van but the Special had a much smaller square speedometer also incorporating the fuel gauge, originally fitted to the 2CV in the mid-1960s and then discontinued.
The model also had a revised and cheaper-to-make plastic version of the 1960s two-spoke steering wheel instead of the one-spoke item from the Dyane, as found on the Club.
From the 1978 the Special regained third side windows, and was available in red and white; beginning in mid-1979 the 602 cc engine was installed.
In June 1981 the Special E arrived; this model had a standard and particularly low urban fuel consumption.
Citroen itself now had the available.
Peak annual production for 2CVs was reached in 1974 163,143 cars but by 1980 this had dropped to 89,994 and by 1983 would stand at just 59,673.
None the less the car remained profitable for PSA to produce on account of its tooling and set-up costs being amortised many years before and it could share major parts with more popular or profitable models such as the Visa and.
As part of this rationalisation in 1981 the Special was fitted as standard with the 602 cc engine, although the 435 cc version click to see more available to special order in some European countries until stocks were used up.
Also in 1981 a yellow 2CV6 was driven by in the 1981 film.
The car in the film was fitted with the engine from a which more than doubled the power.
In one scene the ultra light 2CV tips over and is quickly righted by hand.
Citroen launched a special edition 2CV "007" to coincide with the film; it was fitted with the standard engine and painted yellow with "007" on the front doors and fake bullet hole stickers.
In 1982 all 2CV models got inboard front disc brakes, which also used instead of conventional brake fluid - https://artwinajans.com/blackjack/blackjack-boat-dealers.html same as was found in the larger Citroen models with.
In late 1986 Citroen introduced the Visa's replacement, the.
This was widely regarded as a superior car to the Visa and took many of the codepen blackjack 2CV sales in France following its introduction.
From 1986 to 1987 2CV production fell by 20 per cent to just 43,255 cars.
Of that total over 12,500 went to and 7212 went to the UK.
France was now the third-largest market for 2CVs, taking 7045 cars that year.
It was estimated that Citroen was now selling the 2CV at a loss in the French market, but that it was still profitable in other European countries.
The peak of 2CV sales in the United Kingdom would be reached in 1986, thanks to the introduction of the popular Dolly special edition see below - article source new 2CVs were registered in Britain that year.
This year saw the discontinuation of the Club, which was by then the only 2CV model to retain the rectangular headlamps.
This left the Special as the only regular 2CV model, alongside the more fashion-orientated Dolly, Charleston and the other special editions.
In 1988, production ended in France after 40 years.
The factory at had been the global centre for 2CV production since 1948 but was outdated, inefficient and widely criticised for its poor working conditions.
The last French-built 2CV was made on February 25.
In recognition of the event, the last 2CV built at Levallois was a basic Special in a non-standard grey colour - the same shade as worn by the very first 2CVs.
Production of the 2CV would continue at the smaller-capacity but more modern plant in Portugal.
In 1989 the first were introduced voluntarily by a number of European nations, ahead of the legal deadline of July 1992.
This meant that the 2CV was withdrawn from sale in Austria, Denmark, Italy, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands - the latter one of the car's largest remaining markets.
That year the three leading markets for the 2CV were West Germany 7866France 5231 and the UK 3200.
The last 2CV was built at Mangualde on 27 July 1990 - it was a specially-prepared Charleston model.
Only 42,365 2CVs were built in Portugal in the two years following the end of French production.
Portuguese-built cars, especially those from when production was winding down, have a reputation in the UK for being much less well made and more prone to corrosion than those made in France.
According to Citroen, the Portuguese plant was more up-to-date than the one in near Paris, and Portuguese 2CV manufacturing was to higher quality standards.
As of October 2016, 3,025 remained in service in the UK.
In 1981 the 007 arrived.
In 1983 the 2CV Beachcomber arrived in the United Kingdom; it was known as "France 3" in France or "Transat" in other continental European markets � Citroen sponsored the French America's Cup yacht entry of that year.
In 1986 there was the Cocorico.
This means "cock-a-doodle-doo" and tied in with France's entry in the.
In 1987 came the Bamboo, followed by the 1988 Perrier in association with the mineral water company.
Other changes were a new rear-view mirror and inboard disc brakes at the front wheels.
Citroen 2CV6 Club � 2013 The Dolly special edition was introduced in March 1985, using bright two-tone colour schemes with a similar Art Deco style as the more subdued Charleston.
In its name, style and marketing the Dolly was particularly aimed at female car buyers, as in the mid-1980s research showed that 40% of 2CV buyers were women.
With demand for these models still high Citroen made the Dolly a permanent fixture in the 2CV range.
While the first two fiat 500 blackjack chile had, like the other special editions, been based on the more luxurious Club model the production Dolly was based on the basic 2CV Special to provide a model priced between the Special and the Club.
In many markets, including Germany and the UK, the Dolly was best-selling 2CV model, outselling all the other variants combined in some years.
It was introduced mainly because of stricter emissions standards.
In 1987 it was replaced by the "Sausss-duck" special edition.
During the post-war years Citroen was very focused on the home market, which had some unusual quirks, like.
The management of was supportive of Citroen up to a point, and with a suspension designed to use Michelin's new the Citroen cars clearly demonstrated their superiority over their competitors' tyres.
But they were not prepared to initiate the investment needed for the 2CV or the for that matter to truly compete on the global stage.
Citroen was always under-capitalised until the 1970s Peugeot takeover.
Production of the 2CV in was from 1952 to 1980.
Production at Citroen's plant inEngland was from 1953 to 1960.
Until then British construction and use regulations made cars with inboard front brakes such as the 2CV illegal.
Producing the car in Britain allowed Citroen to circumvent trade barriers and to sell cars in the and.
It achieved some success in these markets, to the extent that all Slough-built 2CVs were fitted with improved air cleaners and other modifications to suit the rough conditions found in Australia and Africa, where the 2CV's durability and good ride quality over rough roads attracted buyers.
The 2CV sold poorly in Great Britain in part due to its excessive cost, because of import duties on components.
In 1959, the British ordered 65 2CV pick-ups from the Slough plant, following sea tests aboard in the West Indies and the Indian Ocean during 1957�58, with the Westland Whirlwind helicopters of 845 squadron RNAS.
The pick-ups also served aboard HMS.
They were to serve as motor transport with the 42nd Commando regiment of the Royal Marines, which required robust and reliable vehicles to cope with jungle tracks, that were light enough to be taken ashore by helicopter from the aircraft carriers.
In 1959 Slough introduced a unique model, the glass-fibre coupe version called the.
Styling of this car was by Peter Kirwan-Taylor better known for his work with of on the 1950sbut fiat 500 blackjack chile bodywork proved too heavy for the 425 cc 25.
In 1975, the 2CV was re-introduced to the British market in the wake of the oil crisis, which resulted in an increasing demand for smaller cars, to which most manufacturers had responded by launching small "supermini" cars, including theand.
The second wave of 2CVs for the British market were produced in France but avoided the crippling import duties of the 1950s, because the UK was by then a member of the.
In the 1980s, the best foreign markets for the 2CV were the UK and West Germany.
The original model that produced 9 hp 6.
Also in 1959, the firm began producing the 2CV under licence at the plant, in what is today.
This venture lasted from 1959 to 1985, and grew to encompass many Citroen models.
The Yugoslav automobile market was closed, so more info with a local firm allowed Citroen to access the market.
In the in 1963, a fiat 500 blackjack chile assembled 2CV was sold in some west African countries as the Citroen "".
This idea of building a "simplified" 2CV in developing countries was subsequently tried several times, as detailed under.
In 1972, the firm began production of the 2CV-based Pony.
In 1966, Citroen entered with the 2CV.
The 2CV was soon supplanted by the Jiane, a local version of the.
The cars were originally manufactured in Iran in a joint venture between Citroen and up until thewhen Iran National was nationalised, which continued producing the Jiane without the involvement of Citroen.
The 2CV was built in both and for.
The 1953 Citroneta model of the 2CV made in Chile and Argentina used a type AZ chassis with 425 cc engine developing 12 bhp 8.
Both chassis and engine were made in France while the "three box" bodywork in both 2- and 4-door versions was designed and produced in Chile.
It was the first economy car on the market in Chile.
The 1970s Chilean version mounted a 602 cc engine with an output of 33 hp 25 kWand was designated as the AX-330.
It was built between 1970 and 1978, during which it saw changes like different bumpers, a hard roof, front disc brakes, and square headlights.
A derivation called the "3CV" was built in Argentina with various modifications such as a hatchback.
Citroen had produced more than 200,000 cars in Argentina by 1977; production ended in 1979.
A 2CV with a heavily modified front end called the 3CV IES America was produced well into the 1980s, by an Argentinian company that bought the rights and factory from Citroen.
One of the models, named the Yagan after an tribe, was made in Chile between 1972 and 1973.
During the200 Yagans used by the Army to patrol the streets and the Peruvian border, with 106 mm 4.
All 2CVs have flap-up windows: roll up windows were considered too heavy and expensive in 1948, and the design thin doors did not allow any update.
While colours and detail specifications were modified in the ensuing 42 years, the biggest mechanical change was the addition of front by then already fitted for several years in the mechanically similar 6in October 1981 for the 1982 model year.
The reliability of the car was enhanced by the minimalist simplification of the designers, being air-cooled with an oil coolerit had no coolant, radiator, water pump or.
It had no distributor either, just a contact breaker system.
Except for the brakes, there were no hydraulic parts on original models; damping was by tuned mass dampers and friction dampers.
The 1948 car featuredwhich had just been commercialised; ; mounted inside the front suspension cross-tube, away from a frontal impact; rear the suspension design allowed wheel changes without removing the skirts ; bolt-on detachable front and rear wings; detachable doors, bonnet and boot lid after 1960by "slide out" P-profile sheet metal hinges; flap-up windows, as roll up windows were considered too heavy and expensive.
Ventilation in addition to the sunroof and front flap windows was see more by an opening flap under the windscreen.
The car had load adjustable headlights and a heater heaters were standardised on British economy cars in the 1960s.
Body The body was constructed of a dual H-frame platform and -style tube framework, and a very thin steel shell that was bolted to the chassis.
The 2CV used the fixed-profile convertible, where the doors and upper side elements of its bodywork remain fixed although, the doors could be removed easily too by lifting them up and way from the car.
The bonnet too could be removed by sliding sideways to allow extra ventilation on very hot days.
The fabric soft top can be rolled back and a picnic basket was available for purchase and fixed on the boot door.
This reduces weight and lowers the centre of gravity, and allows the carrying of long or irregularly shaped items, but the key reason was that fabric was cheaper than steel which was in short supply and expensive after the war.
The fixed-profile concept was quite popular in this period.
Thefore-aft linked suspension system with inboard front brakes had a much smaller than existing or designs.
The design was modified by Marcel Chinon.
The system comprises two suspension cylinders mounted horizontally on each side of the platform chassis.
Inside the cylinders are two springs, one for each wheel, mounted at each end of the cylinder.
The springs are connected to the front leading swinging arm and rear trailing swinging arm, that act like by pull rods tie rods.
These are connected to spring seating cups in the middle of the cylinder, each spring being compressed independently, against the ends of the cylinder.
Each cylinder is mounted using an additional set of springs, originally made from steel, called "volute" springs, on later models made from rubber.
These allow the front and rear suspension to interconnect.
When the front wheel is deflected up over a bump, the front pull rod compresses the front spring inside the cylinder, against the front of the cylinder.
This also compresses the front "volute" spring pulling the whole cylinder forwards.
That action pulls the rear wheel down on the same side via the rear spring assembly and pull rod.
When the rear wheel meets that bump a moment later, it does the same in reverse, keeping the car level front to rear.
When both springs are compressed on one side when travelling around a bend, or front and rear wheels https://artwinajans.com/blackjack/bgg-blackjack.html bumps simultaneously, the equal and opposite forces applied to the front and rear spring assemblies reduce the interconnection.
A larger than conventional steeringensures that the front wheels are closer to vertical than the rears, when cornering hard with a lot of body roll.
The soft springing, long suspension travel and the use of leading and trailing arms means that as the body rolls during cornering the wheelbase on the outside of the corner increases while the wheelbase on the inside of the corner decreases.
As the cornering forces put more of the car's weight apologise, what is 21 plus 3 blackjack amusing the outside pair of wheels the wheelbase extends in proportion, keeping the car's weight balance and centre of grip constant, promoting excellent road holding.
The other key factor in the quality of its road holding is the very low and forward centre of gravity, provided by the position of the engine and transmission.
The suspension also automatically accommodates differing payloads in the car- with four people and cargo on board the increases by around 4 cm 2 in as fiat 500 blackjack chile suspension deflects, and the of the front wheels increases by as much as 8 degrees thus ensuring that ride quality, handling and road holding are almost unaffected by the additional weight.
On early cars friction dampers like a dry version of a multi-plate clutch design were fitted at the mountings of the front and rear swinging arms to the cross-tubes.
Because the rear brakes were outboard, they had extra tuned mass dampers to damp wheel bounce from the extra unsprung mass.
The uprated hydraulic damping obviated the need for the rear inertia dampers.
It was designed to be a comfortable ride by matching the frequencies encountered in human bipedal motion.
This suspension design ensured the road wheels followed ground contours underneath them closely, while insulating the vehicle from shocks, enabling the 2CV to be driven over a ploughed field without breaking any eggs, as its design brief required.
More importantly it could comfortably and safely drive at reasonable speed, along the ill-maintained and war-damaged post-war French Routes Nationales.
It was commonly driven "Pied au Plancher" � "foot to the floor" by their peasant owners.
Front-wheel drive and gearbox Citroen had developed expertise with due to the pioneeringwhich was the first mass-produced steel monocoque front-wheel-drive car in the world.
The 2CV was originally equipped with a sliding splined joint, and twin Hookes type universal joints on its driveshafts; later models used constant velocity joints and a sliding splined joint.
The gear stick came horizontally out of the dashboard with the handle curved upwards.
It had a strange shift pattern: the first was back on the left, the second and third were inline, and the fourth or the S could be engaged only by turning the lever to the right from the third.
Reverse was opposite first.
The idea was to put the most used gears opposite each other � for parking, first and reverse; for normal driving, second and third.
This layout was adopted from the H-van's three-speed gearbox.
Later models had an option for a semi-automatic clutch that allow the user to engage the first gear and wait at the traffic lights with the foot on the brakes only.
The wipers' speed was therefore dependent on car speed.
When the car was waiting at a crossroad, the wipers were not powered; thus, a handle under the speedometer allowed them to be operated by hand.
The wipers and speedometer could not be used at the same time.
From 1962, the wipers were powered by a single-speed electric motor.
The car came with only a speedometer and an ammeter.
In October 1981, front were fitted.
Disc brake cars use � which is not compatible with standard glycol.
It was an air-cooled,four-stroke, 375 cc engine with pushrod operated and a hemispherical combustion chamber.
The earliest model developed 9 PS 6.
A 425 cc engine was introduced in 1955, followed in 1968 by a fr p sls c 1 blackjack s cc one giving 28 bhp 21 kW at 7000 rpm.
With the 602 cc engine, the tax classification of the car changed so that it became a 3CV, but the name remained unchanged.
A 435 cc engine was introduced at the same time to replace the 425 cc; the 435 cc engine car was named 2CV 4 while the 602 cc took the name partycasino/win 1000 6 a variant in Argentina took the name 3CV.
The 602 cc engine evolved to the M28 33 bhp 25 kW in 1970; this was the most powerful engine fitted to the 2CV.
A new 602 cc giving 29 bhp 22 kW at a slower 5,750 rpm was introduced in 1979.
This engine was less powerful, and more efficient, allowing lower fuel consumption and better top speed, at the price of decreased acceleration.
go here 2CVs with the Blackjack 247 engine can run on unleaded petrol.
The 2CV used the for simplicity and reliability and had only speed-controlled ignition timing, no vacuum advance taking account of engine load.
Unlike other air-cooled cars such as the and the the 2CV's engine had no valve in its oil system.
The engine needed more time for oil to reach normal operating temperature in cold weather.
All the oil passed through an oil cooler behind the fan and received the full cooling effect regardless of the ambient temperature.
This removes the risk of overheating from a jammed thermostat that can afflict water- and air-cooled engines and the engine can withstand many hours of running under heavy load at high engine speeds even in hot weather.
To prevent the engine running cool in cold weather and to improve the output of the cabin heater all 2CVs were supplied with a grille blind canvas on early cars and a clip-on plastic item called a "muff" in the owner's handbook, on later ones which blocked around half the aperture to reduce the flow of air to the engine.
The and were built integrally with the one-pieceremoving the need for.
The use ofseen as another potential weak point for failure and leaks, was also kept to a minimum.
The are mated to the cylinder barrels by lapped joints with extremely fine tolerances, as are the two halves of the and other surface-to-surface joints.
On any 2-cylinder boxer engine such as the 2CV's, the volume of the crankcase reduces by the cubic capacity of the engine when the pistons move together.
This, combined with the inevitable small amount of "leakage" of combustion gases past the pistons leads to a positive pressure in the crankcase which must be removed in the interests of engine efficiency and to prevent oil and gas leaks.
The 2CV's engine has a combined engine "breather" and oil filler assembly which contains a series of rubber.
These allow positive pressure to escape the crankcase to the engine air intake to be recirculated but close when the pressure in the crankcase drops as the pistons move apart.
Because gases are expelled but not admitted this creates a slight vacuum in the crankcase so that any weak joint or failed seal causes air to be sucked in rather than allowing oil to leak out.
These design features made the 2CV engine highly reliable; test engines were run at full speed for 1000 hours at a time, equivalent to driving check this out km 50,000 mi at full throttle.
They also meant that the engine was "sealed for life" � for example, replacing the big-end bearings required specialised equipment to dismantle and reassemble the built-up crankshaft, and as this was often not available the entire crankshaft had to be replaced.
The engine is very under-stressed and long-lived, so this is not a major issue.
This feature, once universal on cars and still common in 1948 when the 2CV was introduced, was kept until the end of production in 1990.
The last evolution of the 2CV engine was the flat-twin, a 652 cc fiat 500 blackjack chile electronic ignition.
Citroen never sold this engine in the 2CV, but some enthusiasts have converted their 2CVs to 652 engines, or even transplanted or GSA flat-four engines and gearboxes.
In the mid-1980s Steve Cropley ran and reported on a turbocharged 602cc 2CV that was developed by engineer Richard Wilsher.
Although the front of the chassis was designed to fold up, to form a according to a 1984 Citroen brochure, in common with other small cars of its era its was very poor by modern standards.
Its advanced underlying engineering was ignored or misunderstood by the public, being clothed in an anachronistic body.
It was the butt of many a joke, famously by in the UK.
Citroen had attempted to replace the ultra-utilitarian 2CV several times with the, and the.
Its comically antiquated appearance became an advantage to the car, and it became a which sold because it was different from anything else on sale.
Because of its down-to-earth style, it became popular with people who wanted to distance themselves from mainstream � "" � and also with environmentalists.
Officially, the last 2CV, a Charleston, which was reserved for Mangualde's plant manager, rolled off the Portuguese production line on 27 July 1990, although five additional 2CV Specials were produced afterwards.
In all a total of 3,867,932 2CVs were produced.
Including the commercial versions of the 2CV, Dyane, Mehari, FAF, and Ami variants, the 2CV's underpinnings spawned 8,830,679 vehicles.
The 2CV was outlived by contemporaries such as the out of production in 2000200319922013 and originally a 1950s2014.
The or Composite Concept Vehicle developed in the mid-1990s is a concept car designed to illustrate new manufacturing methods suitable for developing countries.
The car is a tall, roomy four-door sedan of small dimensions.
The designers at Chrysler said they were inspired to create a modernised 2CV.
The company Sorevie of was building 2CVs until 2002.
The cars were built from scratch using mostly new parts.
But as the 2CV no longer complied with safety regulations, the cars were sold as second-hand cars using chassis and engine numbers from old 2CVs.
The long-running series organized by The Classic 2CV Racing Club continues to be popular in the UK.
Some English nicknames include "Flying Dustbin", "Tin Snail", "Dolly", and "Tortoise".
The Citroen factory offered several high volume variants on the 2CV running gear � the ; the ; the ; and the.
In addition, several lower volume variants were produced.
One was mounted in the front driving the front wheels and one in the back driving the rear wheels.
A single gearstick, clutch pedal and accelerator were connected to both engines.
It was originally intended for use by the French colonies in Northern Africa.
As well as a decreased chance of being stranded, it provided four-wheel-drive traction with continuous drive to some wheels while others were slipping because the engine transmissions were uncoupled.
Therefore, it became popular with enthusiasts.
Between 1958 and 1971, Citroen built 694 Saharas.
These rare vehicles are highly collectible.
The was also built as a 4?4 from May 1979, but with only one engine and a reduction gear.
Bijou The was built at the Citroen factory inUK in the early 1960s.
It was a two-door fibreglass-bodied version of the 2CV designed by Peter Kirwan-Taylor, who had been involved in styling the original 1950s.
The design was thought to be more acceptable in appearance to British consumers than the standard 2CV.
It was also more expensive than the Austin Mini, which was more practical.
Citroen Coccinelle project The was a range of experimental non-production vehicles created by from 1955 to 1956 under the direction of.
The idea was to produce a -shaped, very lightweight vehicle, which would be more modern and smaller than the 2CV.
One of the prototypes, the Citroen C-10 has survived and is still owned by.
The overall look of the vehicle was quite similar to the.
It was equipped with the same 425 cc engine as the 2CV.
The vehicle was also nicknamed Citroen Coccinelle Ladybug or Ladybird in French.
In the UK, Louis Barber builds single-engined four-wheel-drive 2CVs.
In the late 1990s, from BBC Top Gear tested one against a Landrover Defender off-road.
Another very different double front-ended, four-wheel drive but not at the same time 2CV, the 1952 Citroen Cogolin, also known as the Bicephale, was built for the French Fire Service � the Sapeur-Pompiers.
This was meant to enable the car to drive into a narrow position and away again without having to turn.
Boot extensions Some owners wished to have more luggage capacity in the 2CV sedan.
Early 2CV could be fitted with a rounded aftermarket boot trunk lid, reminiscent of a post-war "big boot".
Some late model owners fitted an extension to the car's.
This used the original boot lid and hinges, but in a horizontal position with the extension underneath.
UMAP Complete knock down CKD locally built cars The Greek market and African market and were flat-panelled Mehari type, 2CV based utility cars, built from kits of mechanical parts, with many components sourced locally.
They were built in assembly plants.
There was widespread production of similar 2CV-based vehicles in a large number of countries, including Iran Baby-Brousse, Jyane-MehariVietnam DalatChile YaganBelgium VanCleeSpain, Portugal and others.
Kit cars and specials Examples of 2CV-based kit sports cars include the Pembleton, and the from Britain, and and Patron from the Netherlands.
Most are also available as three wheelers single wheel at the rearlike an early sports car.
Some have been fitted with larger air-cooled twin-cylinder motorcycle engines.
For transportation purposes, some saloon models were rebuilt into vans using fibreglass reconstructions of corrugated 2CV Fourgonnette rear box sections.
The "Bedouin" was a flat-panel wooden-bodied kit car.
UMAP coupe The small French company UMAP was established in 1956 in the northern French village see moreby Camille Martin, the former mayor.
The acronym UMAP stands for Usine Moderne d'Applications Plastiques � Factory for Modern Plastic Applications.
UMAP produced the SM 425 and SM 500 from 1957, two externally identical coupes based on the Citroen 2CV.
In 1958 production was discontinued.
Le site reference sur la 2CV in French.
Retrieved 7 September 2016.
Channel 4 � Equinox.
Retrieved 12 April 2017.
Archived from on 7 April 2014.
Retrieved 18 June 2014.
Wheels, The New York Times.
The Globe and Mail.
Retrieved 21 August 2016.
Automotive Research Library of the Horseless Carriage Foundation, Inc.
Retrieved 29 August 2016.
World in Motion 1939, The whole of the year's automobile production.
Toutes les Voitures Francaises 1940�46 les Annees Sans Salon.
Retrieved 3 April 2017.
Retrieved 3 April 2017.
Retrieved 19 January 2019 � via Citroenet.
Archived from on 20 March 2011.
Retrieved 3 December 2011.
The Car's the Star.
Retrieved 20 August 2009.
Retrieved 29 August 2016.
Retrieved 17 February 2012.
Retrieved 12 April 2017.
Retrieved 12 April 2017.
Archived from on 7 January 2017.
Retrieved 13 October 2012.
Retrieved 3 December 2011.
Retrieved 3 December 2011.
L'Auto Journal in French.
Retrieved 10 July 2016.
Toutes les Voitures Francaises 1982 aucon Salon a Paris 1981.
Retrieved 21 August 2009.
List of DVLA statistics.
Retrieved 16 October 2016.
Retrieved 9 June 2017.
Retrieved 22 February 2011.
Retrieved 1 August 2011.
FCIA � French Cars In America.
Retrieved 7 May 2017.
Retrieved 2 May 2009.
Archived from on 29 July 2017.
Retrieved 24 April 2017.
Retrieved 12 May 2017.
Retrieved 1 December 2007.
Retrieved 7 January 2010.
Archived from on 6 February 2007.
Retrieved 28 May 2008.
Retrieved 7 January 2010.
Retrieved 7 January 2010.
Retrieved 19 January 2019 � via Citroenet.
Retrieved 19 January 2019 � via Citroenet.
Retrieved 19 January 2019 � via Citroenet.
Retrieved 17 April 2014.
Retrieved 19 January 2019 � via Autospeed.
Retrieved 19 May 2012.
Citroen � Unorthodox Suspension".
Retrieved 23 July 2015.
Retrieved 4 March 2019.
Archived from PDF on 16 March 2012.
Retrieved 25 December 2010.
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Archived from on 29 April 2013.
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Toutes les Citroen, des origines a nos jours.
Citroen 2CV Ultimate Portfolio.
The Classic Citroens 1935�1975.

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